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Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science

by Joan M. Reitz
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A term introduced by AT&T to refer to a dedicated digital circuit provided by the telephone companies capable of transmitting data point-to-point at the rate of 1.544 Mbps (megabits per second), containing 24 individual channels, each capable of transmitting voice or data at the rate of 64 Kbps (kilobits per second). Individuals may purchase one of these channels in an arrangement known as fractional T1 access. Businesses and academic institutions lease T1 lines to connect to the Internet and may also use them for local area networks. The monthly charge is usually determined by distance. T1 lines are also used by Internet service providers to provide Internet access to individuals and small businesses. The Internet backbone is constructed of higher-speed T3 lines. Synonymous with DS1. See also: bandwidth.

A term introduced by AT&T to refer to a dedicated digital circuit provided by the telephone companies capable of transmitting data point-to-point at the rate of 44.736 Mbps (megabits per second), used mainly by Internet service providers to connect to the Internet backbone and for the backbone itself. A T3 line contains 672 individual channels, each capable of transmitting 64 Kbps (kilobits per second). Synonymous with DS3. Compare with T1. See also: bandwidth.

A short leather tongue, usually rounded at the corners, projecting from the head and/or tail of the spine on some bindings of the 7th to 12th century, to facilitate removal of the volume from a storage chest. Click here to see an example on a 12th-century binding (Schøyen Collection, MS 021). See also: finger tab.

tab index
A set of small projections called finger tabs extending from the fore-edge of a book like a series of steps, bearing a sequence of letters, numbers, or other characters, sometimes printed against a dark background, to show the alphabetic, subject, numeric, or other arrangement of the text for rapid reference. Compare with step index and thumb index.

A compact, systematic list of data, as in a table of contents listing the chapters of a book, or the Periodic Table of Elements in chemistry. Also refers to the compact arrangement of facts, figures, or other data in vertical rows and columns to facilitate comparison, usually with a title across the top or an explanatory caption or note written or printed underneath. In books containing information in tabular format, a list of tables is usually provided in the front matter with page numbers as locators. Some statistical reference works consisting entirely of tables are indexed by table number (example: Statistical Abstract of the United States). Click here and here to see tables of consanguinity and affinity in the 12th-century decretals of Gratian (Getty Museum, MS Ludwig XIV 2) and here to see almanac tables in a 15th-century astronomical treatise (British Library, Arundel 66).

In Dewey Decimal Classification, lists of notation that may be added in number building to other numbers in the schedules to form a class number appropriate to the content of a work. There are two kinds of tables in DDC: (1) six numbered auxiliary schedules containing numbers representing standard subdivisions, geographic areas, literary forms, languages, ethnic and other groups, etc., and (2) lists of special notation found in add notes under specific numbers in the main schedules and in Tables 1-6 (called add tables). In DDC, numbers from the tables are never used alone.

A representation of a scene, picture, painting, or sculpture, created by posing one or more costumed actors or models in appropriate positions, usually with props (see this contemporary example). The participants remain motionless and silent throughout the live display. Tableaux vivants were a popular form of entertainment prior to the introduction of radio and motion pictures.

tableau miniature
A large painting in a medieval illuminated manuscript depicting a person, group, or incident in a picturesque setting, often enclosed in a frame. Click here to see two magnificent examples from a 15th-century French Book of Hours, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and here to see a 14th-century Florentine miniature of the Annunciation with a large, superimposed foliate initial "R," courtesy of the National Library of Australia.

table book
A form of manuscript or printed music book, popular in the 16th and 17th centuries, in which the vocal or instrumental parts of an ensemble composition are displayed in a manner that enables the performers to read their parts while seated across or around a table. This was accomplished by inverting the parts on the upper half of the verso and recto of each opening, or by inverting the entire recto page in relation to the verso. The system was later expanded to accommodate as many as eight players. Click here to see a 17th-century Dutch example, courtesy of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. In library cataloging, the presence of a table book is indicated in the statement of extent in the physical description area of the bibliographic record. Also spelled table-book. Compare with part book.

Also, a luxurious edition, usually covered in silk or velvet, intended for display in the private drawing rooms of wealthy people of the 19th century, a precursor of the coffee table book.

table of contents (TOC)
A list of the contents of a printed publication in the order of their appearance, usually with page numbers as locators. In a book, the TOC lists the front matter, chapters or other major divisions of the work, and the back matter (see this example). In an anthology or collection, the TOC lists the titles of the works included by the editor(s) (stories, poems, plays, essays, etc.) in order of appearance. In books, the TOC is printed in the front matter on the first recto following the dedication or title page. In periodicals, the TOC appears near the front of each issue or on the back cover, listing the editorial content (articles, columns, reviews, etc.) but not any advertising. See also: current contents.

A flat piece of wood or ivory hollowed out on one side and filled with beeswax to allow a scribe to write on the surface with a stylus (see this example). Throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages, wax tablets were used for teaching, taking dictation, drafting texts, writing letters, computation, and other informal purposes. A text could easily be erased by warming and smoothing the wax with the blunt end of the stylus. Some tablets were designed with handles. A diptych consists of two tablets hinged along one side to close like a book. A thong was sometimes used to hold several tablets together, suspended from a belt or girdle. Click here to see an example in wood bearing an inscription in Greek (Schøyen Collection, MS 608). Latin: tabula. See also: pugillaria.

tablet computer
A mobile computer in the form of a thin flat panel, larger than a mobile phone or PDA, with a touchscreen or pen-enabled interface (example: the Apple iPad introduced in 2010). If present, the keyboard is virtual rather than physical. A booklet consists of two hinged touchscreens that fold closed. A tablet PC is designed to run on an adapted version of a desktop operating system.

A newspaper printed in a format half the size of an ordinary broadsheet newspaper, containing short news stories of a highly sensational and improbable nature, abundantly illustrated (usually with photographs), sold mainly at newsstands and in supermarkets. Click here to connect to the Yahoo! list of tabloids. See also: yellow press.

Also refers to an advertising preprint of four or more pages, normally one-half the size of the newspaper into which it is inserted.

tack value
A measurement of the stickiness of a substance, especially fresh ink.

tactile materials
Reading materials in which the text is converted into a series of raised symbols, as in braille, or is presented in surfaces of contrasting texture, for the manual use of visually impaired persons (click here and here to see examples of tactile maps). In AACR2, materials for the visually impaired are indicated in the general material designation, as in [map (tactile)] and [music (braille)]. See also: National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

A three-character numeric code in the range of 0XX-9XX with XX = 01-99, used in the MARC record to identify the kind of data contained in a field. The numbering system allows fields to be grouped by function in hundreds. In fields requiring authority control, the second and third character positions in the tag indicate parallel content. According to Betty Furrie, approximately 10 percent of all MARC tags are used in most bibliographic records; the other 90 percent are used infrequently (Understanding MARC Bibliographic Machine-Readable Cataloging). For books, the most frequently used tags are:

010 tag - Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN)
020 tag - International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and terms of availability
040 tag - cataloging source
050 tag - Library of Congress call number
100 tag - personal name main entry (primary author)
130 tag - uniform title main entry
240 tag - uniform title
245 tag - title and statement of responsibility (title proper, name of part/section of work, remainder of title, etc.)
246 tag - varying form of title (cover title, parallel title, spine title, etc.)
250 tag - edition (edition statement, other information about edition)
260 tag - publication, distribution, etc. (imprint)
300 tag - physical description (collation)
440 tag - series statement added entry (title)
500 tag - general note
504 tag - bibliography note
505 tag - formatted contents note
520 tag - annotation or summary note
600 tag - personal name subject added entry
610 tag - corporate name subject added entry
650 tag - topical subject heading
651 tag - geographic name subject added entry
700 tag - personal name added entry (joint author, editor, illustrator)
710 tag - corporate name added entry (other than subject or series)
800 tag - series personal name added entry
830 tag - series uniform title added entry

Also refers to a character string attached to a portion of text in an HTML, SGML, or XML document, usually at the beginning and end, to identify elements of the file, specify formatting, or establish a link. To see the tags in this hypertext dictionary, click on "View" or its equivalent in your Web browser and then select the option "Page Source" or "View Source."

tag group
The three-digit content designators (called tags), used to identify fields in the MARC record, are grouped by function in hundreds as follows, with XX in the range of 00-99:

0XX tags - Bibliographic control numbers and coded information
1XX tags - Main entries
2XX tags - Titles, edition, imprint
3XX tags - Physical description, etc.
4XX tags - Series statements
5XX tags - Notes
6XX tags - Subject added entries
7XX tags - Added entries other than subject or series; linking fields
8XX tags - Series added entries and holdings
9XX tags - Fields for local use

See also: parallel content.

The bottom edge of a book, on which it rests when shelved in an upright position. Also refers to the margin at the foot of a page, as opposed to the margin at the head. In typography, the lower loop of the letters g, q, and y of the roman alphabet.

In motion picture film, the end of a roll wound on a reel or core, as opposed to its beginning (the head). When film is wound with the end of the roll on the outside, it is said to be tail out, a procedure used in film repositories to encourage reinspection before viewing.

See: headband.

See: headcap.

A decoration printed in the blank space at the end of a chapter or other division of a book, usually a printer's ornament or a small illustration done by a professional illustrator (see this example). In medieval manuscripts, a tailpiece sometimes included a colophon that might be rubricated. Click here to see a 15th-century example that includes armorial motifs (British Library, Arundel 531). Also spelled tail-piece. Synonymous with tail ornament. Compare with headpiece. See also: frontispiece.

In film production and sound recording, one attempt to film a scene or record a performance. The editor typically selects one version from multiple takes for inclusion in the completed work.

In music publishing, the process of transcribing the notes played on a sound recording, to enable the music to be printed for sale, necessitated by the fact that in recording sessions and live performances, performers often improvise or do not play from a written or printed score.

take down
The process of preparing a book for rebinding by removing its cover, boards, endpapers, sewing threads, and lining, including any cleaning or repair. When a volume has been reduced to its original sections, it is said to have been taken down. Synonymous with pulling.

The acquisition of exclusive rights in a book or other work by a new publisher, following initial publication by another company, sometimes the result of a legal custody fight, as in the case of the long battle between HarperCollins and Macmillan over the U.S. rights to publish The Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis.

See: calotype.

A narrative account of a real, imaginary, or legendary incident, usually told in the first person in a rambling style, with more attention to plot and setting than to character development (see this example). Most tales are works of short fiction (example: "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" by Washington Irving), but the term has also been applied to novels (Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens). In a tall tale, the plot is deliberately far-fetched, usually for comic effect (the short story "Cannibalism in the Cars" by Mark Twain).

From "talking picture" (as movie is derived from "moving picture"). A popular term for a motion picture produced with synchronized sound, used during the period immediately following the introduction of sound in 1927 to distinguish sound films from earlier silent films. The most successful of the early talkies was The Jazz Singer with Al Jolson, released in 1927. Producers that did not immediately embrace the new technology went out of business, abandoning many of the silent films made in 1926 and 1927, now lost forever.

talking book
See: audiobook.

talk show
In radio and television, a serial program consisting primarily of unscripted sit-down conversation between a host or hostess and one or more guests, intended primarily to entertain rather than inform the audience. Although topics covered may be related to current events, talk show discussions are not considered public affairs programming. Invited participants may be celebrities or other well-known figures, or ordinary people who have something in common. The host may pose questions but the structure is generally less formal than an interview. Late night talk shows are known by their hosts (examples: Steve Allen, Jack Paar, Dick Cavett, Charlie Rose). Tabloid talk shows (Phil Donahue and Oprah Winfrey) specialize in celebrity guests. In call-in shows, the host fields phone calls from listeners or viewers who wish to express their opinions or seek advice from guest experts or celebrities.

tall tale
A work of imaginative fiction (novel, novella, or short story) with a plot deliberately intended to stretch the credulity of the reader, often narrated by a character in the story, who brags about his or her achievements or exaggerates the truth (example: Paul Bunyan).

tangible medium of expression
To be eligible for copyright protection, a creative work must be fixed in a concrete form which can be directly perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated to others, with or without the aid of a mechanical or electronic device, for a period of more than transitory duration. For example, a speech (spontaneous or prepared) is protected only when recorded on paper, film, magnetic tape, or some other physical medium.

The process of converting an animal skin or hide into leather by soaking it in lime to remove the hair and then steeping it in liquid containing tannic acid, an astringent derived from vegetable materials such as oak bark, oak gall, acacia, or sumach. Used in ancient Egypt as early as 5000 B.C., tanning turns a skin brown in color and renders it more durable. Tanned goatskin was used on Coptic bindings as early as the 7th century A.D. The covers of books bound in tanned leather should be oiled periodically to prevent drying. Compare with tawing.

tape recording
See: audiotape.

tape residue
Yellowish brown stains, sticky adhesive, or bits of tape adhering to the paper of a book or other printed publication, the result of repairs made with cellophane tape (see this example)--a type of residue that is very difficult to remove.

Narrow strips of tightly woven cotton or linen fabric to which the sections of a book are sewn in quality binding. Two half-inch-wide strips are the norm, but in larger volumes as many as five may be used, spaced at regular intervals across the binding edge. Sewing supports are no longer used in most trade bindings. In older bindings, vellum tapes were used, or cords made from vegetable fiber. Click here to see tapes used to rebind an incunable in the mid-1940s (Princeton University Library).

target audience
The group or category of persons for whom a literary or artistic work is written or produced or for whom a library collection is developed (students, professionals, recreational readers, a particular age or interest group, grade or reading level, etc.). In library cataloging, target audience is indicated in the 521 field of the MARC record.

target market
The type of customer likely to buy specific goods or services, for example, library school students in the case of textbooks published in the field of library and information science.

tarot cards
A category of ephemera consisting of pictorial cards, issued in standard sets of 22, for use in forecasting the future and as trumps in tarok, a card game played in Europe since the mid-15th century. Click here to learn more about the tarot deck, courtesy of HowStuffWorks

On June 25, 2001, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 7-2 in New York Times Co. v. Tasini that publishers of newspapers and periodicals infringed the copyrights of freelance writers by making the full-text of their articles publicly available in computer databases without permission. The suit was filed in 1993 against the New York Times Co., Inc. and four database providers by Jonathan Tasini, president of the 7,200-member National Writers Union. The American Library Association (ALA) filed an amicus curiae brief on the side of the freelancers.

Upholding the 1999 decision of the Federal Appeals Court in favor of Tasini and five other freelance writers, the high court rejected the contention that reproduction in an electronic database is a "revision" of a collective work and therefore permissible under existing copyright law, instead ruling that because articles distributed in a database are taken out of the context of the original print publication, the author retains online rights unless a prior agreement is made with the publisher. The case was sent back to the lower court for determination of appropriate remedies.

The New York Times Co. reacted to the decision by announcing its intention to withdraw up to 115,000 articles from its full-text electronic archives, mostly published between January 1, 1978 (the date the Copyright Act of 1976 went into effect) and 1995 when most periodical publishers began including electronic rights clauses in contracts with freelance writers. The effect of the decision on academic authors who publish in scholarly journals remains unclear. Most database vendors have been less than forthright in revealing to libraries the extent of removal of full-text from their products in compliance with the Tasini decision. Click here to read the Tasini decision, courtesy of the Legal Information Institute at Cornell University.

A row of tabs in a graphical user interface, usually located across the bottom of the screen, with text labels indicating the applications and files currently open. In multitasking, a tab can be clicked by the user to bring the corresponding window to the foreground or to restore it to its original size after it has been minimized. In the Windows operating system, the Start button is also located in the taskbar, which may contain other information such as date and time.

task force
A group of individuals drawn from various units within an organization charged with accomplishing a specific objective or set of objectives. Once the task is completed, the group is disbanded and its members return to their former units.

See: magnetic strip.

Preparation of an animal skin by treating it with alum and salts of iron or chromium, rendering it flexible and whitish in color. Tawed skins are very durable and more resistant to deterioration caused by atmospheric pollution than tanned leather. Geoffrey Glaister notes in Encyclopedia of the Book (Oak Knoll/British Library, 1996) that alum-tawed skins were used in bookbinding in England from the mid-12th to the mid-15th century and in Germany for panel-stamped bindings during the 16th century, sometimes dyed bright pink with kermes, a substance derived from the dried bodies of a scale insect that feeds on oak trees. Click here to see a 15th-century blind-tooled binding in alum-tawed pigskin (Cornell University Library). Synonymous with whittawed.

The science of classification, including the general principles by which objects and phenomena are divided into classes, which are subdivided into subclasses, then into sub-subclasses, and so on. Taxonomies have traditionally been used in the life sciences to classify living organisms (see Tree of Life), but the term has been applied more recently within the information sector to the classification of resources available via the World Wide Web. For a discussion of taxonomies in the information science context, see the entry by Alan Gilchrist in the International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science (Routledge, 2003).

tax stamp
A revenue stamp affixed to various categories of printed materials, indicating that a stamp duty was paid (see this historic example). In the case of legal documents, such as licenses and commissions, the stamp may be required for the document to be legally valid. In the United States, such duties are collected by the individual states.

An initialism for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, a set of communications protocols developed by the U.S. Department of Defense and implemented in 1982 to allow the users of host computers of different types and sizes to communicate with each other and exchange data via the Internet and other networks (intranets and extranets). Supported on most platforms, TCP/IP has become the protocol of the Internet. TCP ensures that the total amount of data (bytes) sent is received correctly, and IP provides the mechanism for routing the packets of data comprising a message to the destination address as efficiently as possible. Click here to learn more about TCP/IP in Wikipedia.

See: Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act.

teacher's manual
A booklet or softcover book issued in conjunction with a textbook to assist instructors in using the text to teach their classes (click here to see a stand-alone online example). In library cataloging, the presence of a teacher's manual is indicated as accompanying material in the physical description area of the bibliographic record representing the item.

teaching librarian
See: instruction librarian.

teaching style
The mix of skills and techniques that, in combination with knowledge, preparation, and experience, enables a librarian to be effective in the classroom. Determined in part by personality, preferences include lecture and demonstration, personal interaction (question and answer), active learning exercises (individual and group), visual aids (blackboard, transparencies, slides, video, presentation software, etc.), and quizzes and take-home exercises. Whenever possible, an effective bibliographic instruction librarian is also guided by the cognitive style of the student. For more on this subject, see the article Discovering Your Teaching Style by Jeanine Akers in the May 2004 issue of C&RL News. See also the online Grasha-Riechmann Teaching Style Survey. Synonymous with instructional style.

tear index
An index of the strength and durability of paper, expressed in units of mN m²/g (millinewtons meter²/gram). In the ANSI/NISO Z39.48 standard for Permanence of Paper for Publications and Documents in Libraries and Archives, tear index is computed as the ratio of tear resistance (mN) to grammage (g/m²).

tear sheet
A page of editorial content or advertising torn or otherwise separated from a periodical or other printed publication for use as a press clipping or file copy or to document insertion of an advertisement or image. Also spelled tearsheet.

tear test
See: grain.

Advertising copy supplied by the marketing department of a publishing company, usually printed on the dust jacket of a new book to entice the reader to open the cover and sample the text.

See: technician.

technical drawing
A drawing made specifically for use in engineering or some other technical context (diagram, cross section, detail, elevation, perspective, plan, working plan, etc.). Architectural drawings are included in this category. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images.

technical illustration
An illustration made or used to show or explain how something works, often published in a reference work or technical manual (see this example).

technical journal
A journal devoted to a particular branch of engineering or technology, providing information for technicians in the field (example: Computing in Science and Engineering). Articles published in technical journals are indexed in Applied Science and Technology Index, Compendex, INSPEC, etc.

technical library
A library that supports one or more of the applied sciences, such as engineering or computer science. A technical library can be a branch library in a large university, a major collection within a large academic or public library, or a special library maintained by a private corporation or government agency. Click here to see the Yahoo! list of engineering libraries. See also: National Technical Information Service.

technical processing
All the activities and processes concerned with acquiring, organizing, preparing, and maintaining library collections, including cataloging and physical processing, usually accomplished "behind the scenes" by the technical services department of a library. When the department is understaffed, arrears may accumulate. See also: centralized processing.

technical report
A scientific paper or article describing research or other significant developments in a field of the applied sciences. When submitted to a military agency, such a report may be classified or subject to other restrictions on access. Click here to connect to the Virtual Technical Reports Center maintained by the University of Maryland Libraries. See also: e-print, National Technical Information Service, preprint, and Standard Technical Report Number.

technical services (TS)
Library operations concerned with the acquisition, organization (bibliographic control), physical processing, and maintenance of library collections, as opposed to the delivery of public services. Technical processing is performed "behind the scenes," usually in a technical services department. See also: Association for Library Collections and Technical Services.

technical support
An automated and/or human system designed to provide assistance to users of equipment and software when problems arise.

A person who has special expertise in the maintenance of high-tech machines, particularly computer and scientific equipment. Libraries with automated systems require the services of a "techie" to keep hardware and software running smoothly. Compare with systems librarian.

Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act (TEACH)
When the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 was debated, lobbyists and educators reached an impasse on new exemptions for digital distance education. Enacted in 2002 following five years of negotiations between educators and the publishing and entertainment industries, TEACH amends the DMCA to permit nonprofit, accredited educational institutions certain exemptions in the use of copyrighted materials. Under Section 110, educators and enrolled students are allowed to display or perform the entire text of a nondramatic literary work in the digital classroom without obtaining prior permission from the copyright holder and without paying fees, provided proper notice of copyright protection is given. Reasonable and limited portions of dramatic literary works, such as narrative motion pictures, operas, plays, etc., may also be used in the digital classroom.

Under Section 112, eligible institutions are permitted to copy an analog version of a copyrighted work to a digitized format for use in the digital classroom, only if a digital version is not available or the available digital version is subject to technological protections that prevent its use. TEACH exemptions apply only to mediated instruction in which the learning process is initiated and supervised by course instructor(s) responsible for determining that the use of copyrighted materials is essential to meeting specific learning objectives. Instructors are required to make a "reasonable" effort to prevent students from disseminating copyrighted materials to others. Many institutions have interpreted password protection of digital course materials as meeting this requirement. Click here to connect to the American Library Association's Web page on distance education and TEACH.

technology plan
A carefully developed strategy for identifying, evaluating, acquiring, and implementing technological systems and services to fulfill a library's mission and optimally serve the needs of its users, usually over a multiyear period. In addition to determining the hardware, software, telecommunication, technical support, and training the library will need, a technology plan addresses how objectives will be accomplished with reference to the goals of the library's overall service program and the environment in which it operates, particularly institutional priorities and funding. Basic components of a technology plan include:

  • A summary providing a synopsis of the plan's primary recommendations and conclusions
  • Background information, including an overview of the library, its mission, the community or user group served, and the process used to develop the plan
  • A description of the existing technological resources
  • A complete description of the technology plan, including goals and objectives, needs, action plan, and proposed budget
  • An evaluation process for monitoring progress toward the achievement of goals and objectives, including a timetable and specific measures of success

Under the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (TCA), public libraries are required to provide a technology plan when applying for E-rate discounts on telephone, telecommunication, and Internet services and for funding to purchase equipment and wiring. Applications for LSTA technology grants must also include a technology plan. The Florida State Library provides a Web site on Library Development: Technology Planning.

A person who has an irrational fear of using electronic equipment, particularly computers and their peripheral devices. In libraries, technophobic patrons may not admit their fear, so the astute reference librarian must be alert to certain cues, such as lack of familiarity with the keyboard or signs of anxiety, and be ready to provide reassurance as needed. In cases of stubborn refusal, the librarian may have to perform the search for the reluctant user, but this can often be done in a manner that makes the process look easy, to encourage the patron to try it independently.

tectonic map
A map showing the boundaries of the hard plates comprising the outer shell (lithosphere) of all or a portion of the earth and, in some cases, volcanic activity, especially along the edges of the plates. Click here to see an example for Texas (Perry-Castañeda Library) and here to see a map of the major tectonic plates of the world, courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey. NASA provides tectonic maps of the North Pole and South Pole based on new satellite technologies that detect and measure tectonic activity (slow movement) in the earth's crust. To learn more about plate tectonics, see the USGS tutorial This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics.

Teen Read Week (TRW)
An adolescent literacy initiative of the Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) of the American Library Association (ALA), intended to encourage teenagers to read and make use of library services and collections. Over 1,400 school and public libraries register with YALSA to participate in TRW each year. The event began in 1998 and is celebrated during third week of October. YALSA establishes the annual theme and provides book lists; local libraries and bookstores design their own programs. YALSA welcomes nonprofit supporting organizations and corporate sponsors. Click here to visit the YALSA's Teen Read Week Web site.

An abbreviation of top edge gilt. See: gilt edges.

See: Text Encoding Initiative.

TEI Header
A section of metadata that can be attached to a document encoded under the Text Encoding Initiative standard to describe the original source file and indicate who converted it to machine-readable form, the encoding and markup principles used, etc. The TEI Header is defined in Chapter 5 of the TEI Guidelines.

To transmit information in the form of electromagnetic signals over television airwaves or cable transmission lines. In a cablecast, transmission is limited to a cable system. Also refers to a television program transmitted in such a manner. Compare with broadcast. See also: newscast.

A piece of equipment designed to convert the images and sound track on motion picture film to electronic signals recorded on videotape or as image files on disk, or telecast directly without recording (see this example).

The process of sending and receiving signals or messages at a distance via telegraph, telephone, radio, television, cable, microwave, or any other electromagnetic means, on which modern information technology depends. Also, any transmission, emission, or reception of signals by such methods. Compare with telecommunications.

The individual messages transmitted and/or received via telegraph, telephone, radio, television, cable, microwave, or other electromagnetic means. Sometimes used synonymously with telecommunication.

To work from home using a computer and telecommunication links, instead of traveling to an office to conduct business. Some library functions, such as the design and maintenance of Web sites, can be accomplished from a distance, but most library personnel work on-site.

A live, two-way conference of two or more people using audio and video transmission technology that enables the participants to see and hear each other in real time without having to meet in the same physical location.

A message sent over a long distance by a signaling device designed to transmit electrical pulses through a wire (or converted to radio waves) using Morse code, a system of short and long signals ("dots" and "dashes") produced by manually manipulating a lever or key to open and close an electric circuit. At the receiving end, the decoded message is typed or pasted onto a paper form for delivery to the addressee (see this example, courtesy of the National Library of Medicine). The information contained in telegrams can be of historical importance, as in the case of the Zimmermann Telegram intercepted by the British on January 16, 1917 (Wikipedia). Use of the telegram declined with the advent of affordable long distance telephone service, but Western Union is still in business. Synonymous with cablegram and lettergram.

telephone directory
A large format paperback publication distributed annually by a telephone company at no charge to its customers, containing an alphabetic list of the names, telephone numbers, and street addresses of people served in a given city, town, or geographic area in a section called the white pages, and an alphabetic list of businesses with phone numbers and addresses in the yellow pages in the back. For large cities, the white pages and yellow pages may be published in separate volumes. Library collections of print phone books have been largely replaced by directories available online at no charge via the Internet (example: Switchboard.com). Most libraries continue to provide print phone books only for the major towns and cities in their state.

A drama written to be recorded in a studio for broadcast on television, rather than to be performed live on stage or filmed as a motion picture. Synonymous with television drama. Compare with screenplay.

A type of one-way broadcasting service that allows digital information provided by a television station, such as closed captions or continuously updated news, to be displayed on a television receiver specially adapted to allow text and graphics to be superimposed over regular programming, usually in frames. Teletext is not interactive. Synonymous with videotext. Compare with videotex.

television feature
A fictional work originally produced for television, usually comparable in length to a feature film released to theater audiences (90 minutes to three hours), not part of a regular television series or mini-series and not a special, for example, A Rather English Marriage (1999) starring Tom Courtenay and Albert Finney, which won several TV British Academy Awards (BAFTAs). A television feature can be an adaptation of another work, for example, The Mill on the Floss (1997) based on the novel by George Eliot. Unless a TV feature is shown on public television, it is usually interrupted by commercials. Synonymous with made-for-TV movie and television movie. See also: teleplay.

television pilot
An initial episode of a proposed television series, intended to showcase the program's possibilities to audiences and potential sponsors. If the response is favorable, the producers may agree to proceed with further episodes.

television program
A work originally broadcast by a television network or station to persons who own television receivers or subscribe to cable television, including news broadcasts, entertainment, documentaries, instructional content, etc. The category does not include motion pictures and other works originally created on film, usually for theatrical release, and later broadcast on television. See also: commercial, television feature, television series, and television special.

television series
A television program in multiple episodes, usually conceived without a definite end, to be aired on a regular schedule (daily, weekly, or monthly). In a nonfiction series, the episodes are usually related in theme and/or host, and often of the same length and similar format (example: American Experience on PBS). The episodes in a fiction series usually share the same characters in a predictable setting, sometimes with a continuous plot (soap operas and sitcoms are in this category). A television mini-series is a multi-episode program of limited duration, aired daily or weekly, usually with a total running time of less than 15 hours (example: The West, a documentary series by Ken Burns). Synonymous with television serial. See also: television pilot.

television special
A single entertainment or news program shown on television on a specific occasion. Entertainment specials, usually less than 90 minutes long, include coverage of major contests (the Olympics) and award presentations (the Oscars), parades and pageants, variety shows, and programs in commemoration of national holidays. Also included are news programs shown on a periodic basis (political conventions) or reporting major events (coronations, inaugurations, royal weddings, assassinations, major military actions, etc.). Compare with television feature.

An abbreviation of teleprinter exchange. A two-way switched network of teleprinters (see this example), similar to a rotary-dialed telephone network, used to transmit text-based messages (example), prepared in advance or typed at a keyboard in real time. The term also refers to the machine used to send and receive such messages. Although telex was first used in Germany in the 1930s, the first commercial telex network in the United States was introduced by Western Union in New York City in 1958. By 1962, there were five major telex exchanges in the U.S., located in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Kansas City, and Atlanta, with four more added by 1966. Forerunner of today's e-mail and text-messaging, telex grew rapidly worldwide. It enables senders to easily verify connection to the correct recipient by means of an automatic "answerback" code, and allows subscribers to send the same message to multiple recipients simultaneously. Telex machines were equipped with display screens long before personal computers appeared in offices and private homes. Although radiotelex is still used in the maritime industry, telex has been largely superseded by FAX, e-mail, and text-messaging systems.

Terminal emulation software governed by the TCP/IP protocol, which allows the user to log on to a remote computer or terminal and use its systems as if on-site. Designed to transmit ASCII text, Telnet was once widely used in libraries to provide remote access to online catalogs but has been largely superseded by graphical Web-based access to electronic resources.

An important environmental factor affecting the condition of library collections. Paper and other materials used in the production of books expand and contract with changes in temperature, sometimes at unequal rates, creating stresses that contribute to deterioration. Conservators consider 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit best for storing books and other printed materials. The simplest instrument for monitoring temperature is the thermometer. A high-low thermometer, checked at the same time each day, is useful for recording temperature over an extended period. Small thermo-hygrometers are used to monitor temperature and relative humidity in small enclosed spaces, such as exhibit cases, and hygrothermographs are available for charting temperature and relative humidity, usually on a seven-day cycle.

A tool in the form of a pattern or overlay, used in graphics as a guide in the duplication of letters, shapes, or designs. Compare with stencil.

temporarily out of print (TOP)
A term used on a publisher's invoice to indicate that the title ordered cannot be supplied because the last printing is sold out and to inform prospective purchasers that additional copies are expected from the printer in the near future. Compare with out of print at present. See also: out of print.

temporarily out of stock (TOS)
A term used on a publisher's invoice to indicate that the title ordered cannot be supplied because current inventory is exhausted but additional copies are expected, usually from the binder or manufacturer. Compare with out of stock. See also: in stock.

temporary binding
From the mid-15th through the 17th century, books were seldom given a permanent binding by the printer. Instead, they were bound in a parchment or vellum case or paper wrappers to keep the sections together until the book was sold to a purchaser who would have it hand-bound to his or her specifications, usually by a professional binder. Some interim bindings, skillfully sewn, have survived in good condition (see these examples, courtesy of the Princeton University Library).

temporary records
Documents intended by their creator to remain useful for a short time only, which have no archival value and can be discarded or destroyed when no longer needed without loss to the individual or organization, for example, draft versions not required to document a process or order records for materials that have been received and processed by a library. See also: contingent records.

temporary storage
A space within an archive or library facility, or located off-site, where materials, equipment, or supplies are kept for a short time until they can be processed, installed, distributed, transferred to a permanent location, or disposed of in some other way, for example, a large gift collection awaiting examination by selectors.

Used in the antiquarian book trade to describe the condition of book with a binding that is loosening.

The guarantee of permanent employment, granted by an academic institution to a faculty member for satisfactory performance upon completion of a specified number of years of service, to be terminated only for adequate cause (incompetence, malfeasance, mental or physical incapacity, genuine financial exigency, etc.). A position for which tenure is granted is classifed as tenure-track. Academic librarians who have faculty status are eligible for tenure; those with academic status usually are not. Click here to connect to the Web page on academic freedom of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP). In a more general sense, the length of time a person has been employed, or may be expected to be employed, by a company, agency, organization, or institution. Synoymous with continuous appointment. Compare with promotion.

A word, phrase, or symbol, especially one used to represent, in a dictionary, catalog, index, or database, a subject or other feature of a work. See also: search term.

Also, a set or limited period of time, especially one of three divisions of the academic year at an institution that uses the term system, rather than semesters.

term frequency (TF)
The number of times a search term occurs in a record or document included in a database, one of the variables used in assigning a weight to the relevance of the record or document in relation to others retrieved in the same search.

An electronic device consisting of a computer keyboard and screen or optical scanner, which can be used to enter data (input) and display output from a central computer (usually a minicomputer or mainframe) but is not capable of independent processing. Synonymous with dumb terminal and visual display terminal (VDT). Compare with personal computer and thin client. See also: dedicated, emulation, and VT100.

In typography, any stroke of a letter or other character that does not end in a serif. Terminals include finials which are curved and tapered, lachrymals shaped like teardrops, beaks, balls, and extended flourishes called swashes.

terminal degree
The degree of highest rank required of an academic professional for permanent full-time employment at an institution of higher education. On January 23, 1975, the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), approved, as a matter of policy, the master's degree in library science (M.L.S. or M.L.I.S.) from a program accredited by the ALA as the appropriate terminal professional degree for academic librarians employed in the United States. The ACRL Board of Directors reaffirmed that decision in June, 2001.

terminal emulation
See: emulation.

The conclusion of a period of employment, whether by mutual agreement, by the employee through resignation, or by the employer through dismissal. The employment contract usually specifies the terms under which an individual or institution may terminate employment and the proper procedures for doing so.

Words, phrases, and symbols representing the concepts and subjects used in a specific field of research, study, or activity, for which the meaning (established by convention or explicit agreement among its practitioners) is clearly defined, sometimes in a published glossary or lexicon. Synonymous with nomenclature.

terms of availability
The conditions under which a bibliographic item is available for sale in the market place, usually the list price, entered in field 020 or 022 of the MARC record.

In bookbinding, a gathering consisting of three sheets of paper, parchment, or vellum folded once to create six leaves, used in some manuscript books and early printed books. See also: quaternion, quinternion, and sextern.

The area covered by a representation agreement or visited by an individual salesperson or sales team employed by a company that divides its sales force coverage on the basis of geography, sales potential, or other characteristics.

tertiary source
A written work, such as a chapter in a textbook or entry in a reference book, based entirely on secondary sources, rather than on original research involving primary documents. Whether a source is secondary or tertiary can be determined by examining the bibliography (if one is provided). Another clue is that secondary sources are almost always written by experts, but tertiary sources may be written by staff writers who have an interest in the topic but are not scholars on the subject.

test case
A legal action in which the decision establishes a principle or precedent which can be followed in subsequent cases of similar or related nature.

test collection
A library collection consisting of assessment instruments used by researchers and practitioners in education, psychology, counseling, and allied fields. Information on test collections is available in the Directory of Test Collections in Academic, Professional, and Research Libraries (2002) published by the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL). Tests are reviewed in the Mental Measurements Yearbook published by the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

test guide
See: study guide.

test pattern
A design including different textures and colors, displayed on a television screen to enable viewers to adjust components properly (see this example).

A form of binding in which the text of one work begins at the "front" of the book and the text of a second work at the "back," inverted (upside down) with respect to the other so that their last pages meet somewhere in the middle of the sections. Also, a volume bound in the same manner, which contains different versions of the same text. Compare with dos-à-dos. See also: back to back.

Also refers to a joined pair of postage stamps printed upside down in relation to each other (see these examples).

See: trilogy.

In a written, printed, or digital work, the words or (in the absence of words) signs or symbols used to express the author's thoughts, feelings, and ideas. Compare with wordless. See also: electronic text, subtext, and textual criticism.

Also refers to the body of a book, excluding the front matter, back matter, and any notes, illustrations, captions, headings, or other display matter. Also used as a shortened form of textbook. See also: text block.

In library cataloging, the general material designation for printed material that can be read by the human eye without the aid of magnification, for example, a book, pamphlet, periodical, broadside, etc. For tactile materials, a qualifier is added to the GMD, as in [text (braille)]. Also refers to the words of a song, cycle of songs, or (in the plural) collection of songs (AACR2).

In computing, a machine-readable data file containing elements (letters, characters, ideographs) that can be read as words and sentences, as opposed to a file consisting of nontextual symbols, graphics, audio, and/or video. See also: plain text and rich text. In e-mail, the body of a message, as distinct from its header and footer.

text area
In printing, the portion of the page covered by printed text, as opposed to illustration or blank space, such as margins.

text block
The gathered signatures of a written or printed book sewn or adhered in a single unit and usually trimmed before attachment to the case or cover, not including any paper added by the binder, such as endpapers or doublures (see this diagram). Compare in this sense with book block.

Also used in a narrower sense to refer to the leaves of a book that bear the actual text of the work, as opposed to the front matter, back matter, and any plates printed separately, usually on a different paper stock, to be added in binding. Also spelled textblock.

An edition of a book specifically intended for the use of students who are enrolled in a course of study or preparing for an examination on a subject or in an academic discipline, as distinct from the trade edition of the same title, sometimes published in conjunction with a workbook, lab manual, and/or teacher's manual. Also refers to the standard work used for a specific course of study, whether published in special edition or not. Textbooks were among the first works to be published following the invention of printing from movable type. Click here to see a selection of fine woodcut illustrations from a medical textbook on anatomy printed on vellum in Basel in 1543 (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, MS Hunterian Ce.1.18).

Textbooks are usually ordered by college bookstores in quantity, based on projected course enrollment. The standard publisher's discount on textbook orders is 20 percent. Used copies in good condition may be sold back to the bookstore for resale at a lower price than new copies. Academic libraries generally do not purchase textbooks because for most subjects they quickly become outdated, but a textbook received as a gift, usually from a faculty member, may be added to the collection if the need exists. See also: adoption, El-Hi Textbooks & Serials in Print, textbook edition, and textbook pricing.

textbook edition
A trade book issued in a separate edition specifically for the use of students enrolled in a course of study. The format may be altered to make it more useful, for example, by the addition of study questions and bibliographies at the end of each section or chapter. Textbook editions are sold at short discount, usually 20 percent when ordered in quantity. Synonymous with text edition.

textbook pricing
According to the National Association of College Stores, the textbook market (including course packs) was a $10.25 billion industry in FY 2009-2010. Library and Book Trade Almanac (2010) reports that the average price of an academic textbook (all subjects) was $92.86 in 2008, an increase of 5.5 percent over the previous year. Tuition increases and the relentless rise in textbook prices threaten to make higher education unaffordable for students from low- to moderate-income families. The increases have sparked student resistance and forced college and university administrators, state legislatures, and even the U.S. Congress to address the issue. Various solutions have been suggested, including tax breaks, book rentals, and institutional licensing.

Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)
Introduced in 1987, TEI is an international interdisciplinary standard intended to assist libraries, museums, publishers, and scholars in representing literary and linguistic texts in digital form to facilitate research and teaching. The encoding scheme is designed to maximize expressivity and minimize obsolescence. TEI began as a research project organized cooperatively by the Association for Computers and the Humanities, the Association for Computational Linguistics, and the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing, funded by research grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the European Union, the Canadian Social Science Research Council, the Mellon Foundation, and others. Click here to connect to the TEI Web site. See also: TEI Header.

textile binding
A style of bookbinding popular in Europe from the 12th to the 15th century in which the boards were covered in velvet and/or silk brocade, usually adorned with gold or silver clasps. From the 16th to the 18th century, velvet and satin bindings sumptuously embroidered by skilled needleworkers were popular with women of means. Because luxury fabrics are often fragile, they are easily abraded or torn. Fabric can also be damaged by mold if it becomes wet or damp. For these reasons, few examples of fine textile bindings survive in good condition. To see examples, try a search on the keyword "textile," "embroidered," "silk," "velvet," or "canvas" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings.

Canvas came into limited use as a binding material in England during the late 18th century, and cotton book cloth was commonly used on covers in the 19th century, often with embossed grains. Since then, the quality of book cloth has declined, except in library binding in which the materials used are governed by strict standards.

textile design drawing
A graphic image made for the design and production of woven or non-woven fabric, or to document such work (see this example, courtesy of the Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, Glasgow University). Before the advent of computer-aided design software, textile designers often transferred their drawings to a special type of graph paper called point paper, used by weavers in setting up their looms (see this example, courtesy of Wikipedia)

text illustration
In books, illustrative matter printed on the same page as the text, rather than on separate paper (often of a different grade).

See: text message.

text message
A typed electronic message of less than 160 characters, sent via a wireless network to another person for viewing on a mobile or handheld device. Restrictions on length have led to the widespread use of abbreviations and acronyms in text-messaging. Abbreviated texting.

text pages
The pages bearing the printed words that constitute the main text of a book, not including the front matter or any specially printed plates, maps, etc.

A developing language of abbreviations used in Internet and cell phone communication, in which letters of the alphabet are used to represent syllables or words, numerals to represent sounds or words, and combinations of letters and numerals to compose sentences (examples: RUOK for "Are you OK?" and CUL8R for "See you later"). See linguist David Crystal's A Glossary of Netspeak and Textspeak published in 2004 by Columbia University Press. Also spelled text speak. Compare with netspeak. See also: smiley.

text-to-speech (TTS)
Software designed to convert natural language text into synthetic human speech sounds, allowing people with reading disabilities or visual impairments to listen to printed works on a personal computer, e-book reader, or other electronic device. Some libraries provide access to computers with speech synthesizing capability.

text type
Type used to print reading material, for example, the body of a book or other publication, as opposed to the display type used to print headings, running titles, etc., or the extract type used to print notes and long quotations. Synonymous with body type. See also: type size.

textual criticism
Close study and comparison of the various texts of a literary work to determine the version that reflects most faithfully the writer's intentions, particularly important in the case of older works for which the original manuscript is missing or incomplete or for which multiple versions exist. See also: recension and textus receptus.

Latin for "weaving" or "woven." In printing, the most formal of the gothic or black letter type fonts, used for early editions of the Bible. Click here to see texture in a copy of the Gutenberg Bible (Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin). Textura is based on the gothic minuscule script widely used in Europe as a book hand during the late Middle Ages. It is characterized by extreme contrast between wide and hairline strokes, narrow letterforms often conjoined at the vertical stroke, short ascenders and descenders, forked ends on ascenders, and a dark, heavy, monotonous aspect to the page caused by compression with the space between vertical strokes reduced to the width of the vertical stroke and the space between words to twice the width of the vertical. Versals were used for important initial letters.

textus receptus
Latin for "received text." The version of a work that, in the absence of indisputable proof to the contrary, is considered by scholars to represent the author's intentions to a greater degree than other versions known to exist. Consensus is reached through the process of textual criticism, as in the case of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. See also: recension.

See: term frequency.

See: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.

Theatre Library Association (TLA)
Established in 1937, TLA has an international membership of curators, librarians, archivists, writers, historians, stage designers, actors, booksellers, collectors, and other individuals with an interest research in the performing arts and in the collection, preservation, and use of performing arts materials. Based in New York City, TLA is an affiliate of the American Library Association (ALA). Its publications include the annual journal Performing Arts Resources and the quarterly newsletter Broadside. Click here to connect to the TLA homepage.

The unauthorized removal of materials or equipment from library premises. Theft and vandalism of library materials is punishable as a misdemeanor in most states in the United States. This persistent problem is controlled by restricting access to the technical processing area and by installing security gates at public exits equipped with an alarm system that is automatically activated by a magnetic strip affixed to the item unless the strip is desensitized at checkout. Unfortunately, determined thieves learn to locate and remove the strips to avoid detection. Closed circuit television surveillance systems have been installed in the rare books reading rooms of some large libraries to deter theft. The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) has issued Guidelines Regarding Thefts in Libraries (January 2003). See also: crime and stolen book.

thematic atlas
A book of maps devoted to a specific topic, subject, or theme, usually including text, illustrations, and other graphic material explaining their meaning and significance (examples: Historical Atlas of Central Europe and The Atlas of Endangered Species).

thematic catalog
A list of the works of a composer, arranged chronologically or by category, in which the major theme is given for each composition, or section of a long composition, usually in a few bars. Some thematic catalogs are devoted to musical works of a particular form and period, usually arranged alphabetically by name of composer. Compare with thematic index.

thematic index
A list of the major themes in a musical composition, or group of compositions, usually printed in the front or back of the score, with references to the work(s) in which they appear. For short pieces, the theme is usually given as the first few bars. Compare with thematic catalog.

thematic map
A map intended to show the distribution of one or more features or characteristics over all or a portion of the surface of the earth. Thematic maps can be quantitative, showing the distribution of statistical data (precipitation, population, disease, earthquakes, etc.), or qualitative, indicating the distribution of characteristics such as predominant language, ethnic group, religion, economic activity, vegetation, soil type, etc. See these maps of the extent of infectious diseases in the United States provided by the U.S. Geological Survey. By convention, topographic maps are excluded from this category. See also: choropleth map, dot map, geologic map, graduated circle, and land use map.

theme song
Words set to music that is intended to identify a motion picture, television series, character, setting, etc., often sung at the beginning and end of the film with the credits (example: "Suicide Is Painless" from M.A.S.H.). When the theme song is named for the title of the work, it is the title song.

then and now comparison
A single graphic image that shows the appearance of a person, place, object, or activity at two or more different time periods, for purposes of comparison (see these photographs of New York City by David W. Dunlap for the New York Times). Synonymous with before & after view.

An image produced with a camera designed to detect radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum (heat instead of light). A thermogram shows variations in the temperature of the objects captured in the image (see this example). Synonymous with thermal image.

See: hygrometer.

See: hygrometer.

A book of synonyms and near-synonyms in a written language, usually arranged conceptually, although dictionary arrangement is not uncommon. The first thesaurus of the English language, published in 1852, was compiled by Peter Mark Roget. For an online thesaurus of the English language, see Merriam-Webster OnLine. A multilingual thesaurus provides synonyms in a variety of languages. See also: crossword puzzle dictionary.

Also refers to an alphabetically arranged lexicon of terms comprising the specialized vocabulary of an academic discipline or field of study, showing the logical and semantic relations among terms, particularly a list of subject headings or descriptors used as preferred terms in indexing the literature of the field. In information retrieval, a thesaurus can be used to locate broader terms and related terms if the user wishes to expand retrieval, or narrower terms to make a search statement more specific. A well-designed thesaurus also enables the indexer to maintain consistency in the assignment of indexing terms to documents. Plural: thesauri. See also: controlled vocabulary, lead-in vocabulary, and metathesaurus.

Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT)
GeoRef Thesaurus
Legislative Indexing Terms: The CRS Thesaurus
Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT)
Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors
Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms
Thesaurus of Sociological Indexing Terms

For other examples of online subject thesauri, see the: Astronomy Thesaurus, Biocomplexity Thesaurus, The Cook's Thesaurus, NAL Agricultural Thesaurus, Thesaurus for Graphic Materials, and Thesaurus of Musical Instruments. To learn more about thesauri, see Wikipedia.

Thesaurus of Geographic Names
See: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.

A proposition advanced and defended in a formal disputation, especially by a candidate in partial fulfillment of university requirements for a master's degree. Master's theses are indexed annually by discipline, subject, and author in Master's Theses Directories and in Disseration Abstracts International. They can also be located in the WorldCat database in OCLC FirstSearch. For digital theses, see the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD). Compare with dissertation. See also: praeses and respondent.

In a more general sense, any proposition advanced and defended in expository speech or writing, usually given in the opening lines or paragraph(s).

thesis play
A dramatic work in which the playwright consciously attempts to illustrate a social problem and suggests to the reader or audience a possible solution (example: Mrs. Warren's Profession by George Bernard Shaw). See also: roman à these.

thesis statement
A sentence or brief paragraph at the beginning of an academic thesis or research paper, giving the central idea or issue explored in the subsequent text.

thin client
A computer connected to a client-server network, which does little or no independent processing, all or most of the application processing being done on the server. The performance of thin clients depends entirely on the quality of the network. A program called "terminal services" must be installed on the server, which must have sufficient memory to respond instantly to requests. Traditional thin clients have no internal memory but rely on embedded software for the instructions required to boot up; diskless thin clients have no embedded software and use a boot server to start up. Thin clients run at the speed of the server, rather than the speed of an internal processor. Newer models come equipped with USB ports to support removable media (floppy disk, CD-ROM, flash memory, etc.). Some libraries use thin clients in public areas to simplify maintenance and reduce down time. Also refers to a client computer capable of downloading a program from a server and processing data like a PC without storing data locally. Compare with terminal.

Named in honor of Thomas Jefferson, THOMAS is a database designed and maintained since 1995 by the Library of Congress to make legislative information, such as the Congressional Record, more accessible to the public. Available on the Internet 24 hours a day free of charge, THOMAS also provides answers to FAQs, links to the full-text of historical documents such as the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States, and a section on bills recently in the news. Click here to connect to the THOMAS homepage.

A sturdy strip of tawed skin or leather used as a wrap-around fastening or as a sewing support in early bookbinding. Click here to see single-thong sewing supports on a 17th-century binding (Princeton University Library). Parchment or vellum tapes and cords made of twisted vegetable fiber were also used as sewing supports in the binding of medieval manuscripts and early printed books.

A theme or topic that generates an ongoing e-mail discussion among participants in an Internet newsgroup or mailing list, usually repeated in the header of each message posted on the subject. Excerpts from the text of preceding messages may be included in the body of a threaded message. In literature, an idea or theme that connects the various parts of a narrative.

Also refers to the strand (or strands) of spun fiber used in bookbinding to sew the sections of a book together, usually made of cotton or linen in machine-sewn bindings. Silk or linen thread may be used in hand-sewing. Thread is also differentiated by gauge (thickness), the binder's choice depending on whether the paper is hard or soft, thickness of sections, and amount of swell anticipated from the accumulation of sewing thread, which can be reduced in binding by a procedure called smashing.

A novel published in three octavo volumes. First issued in paper-covered boards without illustration and later in cloth-covered boards, three-deckers became the standard format for Victorian novels published in England between about 1850 and 1870. The discount offered to circulating libraries kept this form of publication going until the 1890s, when inexpensive reprint editions became widely available (Encyclopedia of the Book, Oak Knoll/British Library, 1996).

three-dimensional photograph
See: hologram.

three-in-one picture
A picture made by cutting into thin strips a surface bearing, on opposite sides, two different graphic images. The strips are uniformly attached at right angles to a second surface bearing a third image, in such a way that when the second surface is turned from side to side, each of the three images becomes visible in succession. Also spelled 3-in-1 picture. Synonymous with turning picture.

three on
See: two on.

three-quarter binding
A style of bookbinding in which the spine and corners are bound in a different material than the sides, usually a more durable covering such as leather. Similar to half-binding except that the corners are larger and the material covering the spine extends up to half the width of the boards (see this example in leather with boards covered in marbled paper, courtesy of the Univ. of Pittsburgh Libraries). Compare with full binding, half binding, and quarter binding.

three-quarter border
See: full border.

A novel, play, or motion picture that produces feelings of intense excitement in the reader or audience by depicting dangerous action (crime, espionage, etc.), usually culminating in a narrow escape in which a high level of suspense is maintained up to the final denouement (example: Alfred Hitchcock's film North by Northwest). In the techno-thriller, the plot often turns on the inner workings of technology, approaching science fiction when the technology is speculative (Tom Clancy's The Hunt for Red October is considered the first of this kind).

A leaf larger than the book block, usually bearing a map, table, diagram, wide-angle photograph, or other illustration, sewn or tipped in and folded so that it can be opened out for reference while the corresponding text is read. Click here to see a hand-colored woodcut foldout landscape in Breydenbach's Pilgrimage published in Mainz in 1486, courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution, and here to see an example the folds out in two directions. Also spelled throwout. Synonymous with fold-out and pull-out. See also: gatefold.

thumb bible
A category of miniature book, first printed in England the early 17th century, containing summaries, abridgments, or paraphrases of biblical texts in verse or prose, often illustrated, intended primarily for use by children (see this example). The term "thumb" may refer to the midget Tom Thumb (Charles Stratton) who visited London with P. T. Barnum in 1844. Editions were also published in French, German, and Dutch well into the 19th century.

thumb book
See: bibelot.

thumb drive
See: USB flash drive.

The condition of a book soiled from heavy use, usually on the edges of the sections and/or binding. Compare with dog-eared.

One of a pair of semi-circular or triangular cuts in the sides of a slipcase, made at the mid-point of the fore-edge to facilitate removal of the enclosed volume. According to Matt Roberts and Don Etherington (Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology), the semi-circular cut is used in quality work, while the triangular cut, used primarily by library and edition binders in the United States, is more economical because it is usually made after the case has been covered.

thumb index
A series of semicircular thumb-sized notches cut into the fore-edge of a book, bearing a sequence of letters, words, numbers, or symbols, usually printed against a dark background to show the alphabetic, subject, numeric, or other arrangement of the text and to facilitate reference, seen most often in hardcover editions of language dictionaries and handbooks. Compare with step index and tab index.

A small image of a page of text or graphic element used in a Web page as a link to the same image in larger format. Since thumbnail graphics take less time to load than the full-size image, they are often used in Web pages to provide the option of enlarging an image without significantly increasing the time required to transmit the document. Click here to see a thumbnail photo gallery of Mars, courtesy of the National Space Science Data Center, and here to see them used by the Connecticut Botanical Society.

In the context of medieval manuscript production, a small rough sketch of mis-en-page made before copying begins, to indicate to the scribe and illuminator the arrangement of text, illustration, and decoration on the page.

A category of ephemera that includes small pieces of paper, card stock, or other material, usually bearing printed information indicating that the holder has paid for or is otherwise entitled to a specified service, right, or consideration, for example, admittance or passage (see these examples). A season ticket usually covers a specified period of time and/or number of events.

A thin, dirty brown or gray stain along the edge of a previously moist area on a sheet of paper, left behind when the paper dried. Tidelines are difficult to remove because they consist of deposited dirt embedded below the surface, and there is a risk of spreading the line when it is first dissolved. Conservators may use a suction table to draw solvent through the paper to prevent the stain from spreading (see this example).

In publishing, a magazine or book issued in conjunction with a motion picture, dramatic performance, or television program for promotional reasons. Book tie-ins are usually published in paperback edition, with cover art derived from the production. A tie-in is often a novelization, but if the production is based on a previously published work of fiction or nonfiction, the tie-in may replace the original edition, at least until interest in the film or television version wanes. However, if backlist sales remain strong, the original edition may be retained to attract a more literary audience. Libraries prefer to purchase the regular edition because the association of movie tie-ins with Hollywood repels some readers. Compare with companion book.

One of two or more distinct levels, as of shelves in a section of library shelving, priorities for resource allocation or acquisition, payment or benefit options in a health care plan, etc.

Narrow strips of leather, cloth, ribbon, or other material attached in pairs to the boards of a book, usually along the fore-edge but sometimes also at head and foot, enabling the binding to be tied shut when not in use. Cloth ties on older bindings often survive only in traces. Some older bindings have clasps or straps for the same purpose. Click here to see four pairs of cloth ties on a heavily decorated 16th-century morocco binding and here to see silk ribbon ties on the fore-edge of an 18th-century parchment binding (Princeton University Library) . To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "ties" in the British Library's Database of Bookbinding. Ties are also commonly used on modern portfolios.

An acronym for Tagged Image File Format, a widely supported data format developed by Aldus and Microsoft for storing black and white, gray scale, or color bitmapped images. Files in TIFF format may be uncompressed or compressed using LZW or a variety of other compression schemes. They usually have the extension .tif or .tiff added to the filename. See also: GIF and JPEG.

TIGER files
An acronym for Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing system, a digital database developed by the U.S. Census Bureau to support its mapping needs for the decennial census and other programs. The topological structure of the TIGER database defines the location and relationship of streets, rivers, railroads, legal boundaries, and other features to each other and to the geographic entities for which the Census Bureau tabulates data gathered in its censuses and sample surveys. To make use of TIGER data, the user must have mapping or geographic information system (GIS) software capable of importing and manipulating TIGER files. The Census Bureau trademarks its TIGER products to inform customers of their origin. Click here to learn more about TIGER products.

The condition of a book so tightly bound that the spine is inflexible, preventing the leaves from opening and staying open at a particular page. As new books are used, their bindings gradually loosen, allowing them to open flat at any page. Library bindings are usually tighter than trade bindings. Compare with tight back.

tight back
A method of binding in which the cover is adhered to the back of the sections, leaving no hollow to allow the binding to flex as the volume is opened. Books bound by this method do not open flat. Another disadvantage is that any lettering printed on the spine tends to crack with extended use. For these reasons, hardcover editions are nearly always bound with a hollow back. Click here to compare the two binding methods. Also spelled tightback. Synonymous with fast back and fixed back.

Tijuana bible
A slang term for pornographic comic books published anonymously and distributed "under the counter" in the United States from the 1920s to the early 1960s. Also known as eight-pagers because they were printed in eight-panels in 2.5 x 4-inch format in black ink on cheap paper (see these examples). The content often parodied popular culture figures (comic strip characters, well-known politicians, movie stars, etc.) by depicting them engaged in explicit sexual behavior. Synonymous with bluesies, gray-backs, Jiggs-and-Maggie books, jo-jo books, Tillie-and-Mac books, and two-by-fours.

A mark in the form of a horizontal inverted "s" (~) used as a diacritical mark over certain letters in the Spanish and Portuguese languages to indicate pronunciation, as a symbol indicating negation in logic, the geometric relation "is similar to" in mathematics, and in URLs, usually followed by the name of the person responsible for creating and/or maintaining the Web page.

'til forbid
An instruction, usually given by the purchaser of a subscription, to treat the title as a continuation order until further notification. Synonymous with till-forbid order.

time capsule
A carefully selected group of objects, often photographs and other documents thought to be representative of life at a particular period in time, sealed inside a sturdy container for storage at a known location, to be retrieved and opened at a future date to establish a link with the past (see this example). A brief ceremony is usually held when a time capsule is dedicated and at its opening. Time capsules are often lost before they are opened due to theft, secrecy, or poor planning (click here to learn more about lost time capsules, courtesy of the International Time Capsule Society). Archivists are sometimes called upon to assist in the creation of time capsules. Click here for advice about how to prepare a time capsule, courtesy of the Florida Bureau of Archives and Records Management. Also spelled timecapsule.

time code
An electronic synchronizing system standardized by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) that was originally used in video editing but is now also used to mark motion picture film and sound tape with a series of pulses from which a continuous readout of elapsed hours, minutes, and seconds is generated. The code is also used to document individual frame numbers and to record additional information, such as scene, take, camera, and roll number. Employed in production to synchronize picture and sound, shots from multiple cameras, and multiple sound tracks, the code also facilitates electronic editing. Synonymous with SMPTE code.

time-expired records
In archives, temporary records assigned a specific date for destruction that has passed without the occurrence of appropriate action, usually due to a backlog in processing.

time-lapse animation
A film animation technique in which live action is shot one frame at a time at periodic intervals, then projected at the standard speed of 24 frames per second. Because time-lapse motion pictures show, in a few seconds or minutes, events or activities that occur in the course of hours or days, the technique is often used to capture processes, such as the growth of plants or the movement of clouds, which occur too slowly to be perceived by the unaided eye (see this example courtesy of Wikipedia).

time-lapse photograph
See: motion study photograph.

A linear, visual representation of the chronological development of a subject, usually from a given starting point up to the present, often in multiple dimensions (geographic, thematic, etc.). For a book-length example, see Timelines of African-American History: 500 Years of Black Achievement (1994) by Thomas Cowan and Jack Maguire. For online examples, see the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Timeline of Art History, the British Library's timeline in Illuminating the Renaissance, and Scotland's Pages covering the written history of Scotland, courtesy of the National Library of Scotland. For other examples, see the Yahoo! list of online timelines. Compare with chronology.

In computing, a routine that automatically terminates a period of waiting when a screen requiring user input receives no response within a designated time, for example, a network interface that logs off whenever a predetermined period of inactivity occurs during an online session. The term is also used in communications to refer to the automatic termination of a waiting period when no response is received. Also spelled time out.

A form, usually printed, on which one or more employees record the hours they worked during a given pay period, usually by day, for submission to the payroll department, which issues checks for salaries or wages based on the total amount of time reported as worked. Any vacation or sick leave taken is also logged. Employees are often required to sign the sheet or initial their hours. Timesheets may be retained by the employer as employment records, usually for a fixed period of time. Also spelled time sheet.

Times Literary Supplement (TLS)
First published in 1902, TLS is one of the most influential book review publications in the United Kingdom. Published weekly in newspaper format, it provides in-depth reviews of current fiction and nonfiction on a wide range of subjects, as well as reviews of contemporary theater, opera, and film productions. Like its American counterparts, the New York Review of Books and the New York Times Book Review, TLS is noted for its coverage of literary works. It also carries announcements of new books published by scholarly and university presses. ISSN: 0307-661X. Click here to connect to the online version of TLS.

A category of ephemera consisting of a printed sheet or booklet listing the times of departure and arrival for a given mode of transportation (bus, train, shuttle, etc.), usually specifying the period of time for which the schedule remains valid (see this example).

Tin Pan Alley
The area around West 28th Street between 5th and 6th Avenue, home to the majority of New York City's music publishers and songwriters from about 1885 to 1905. By the end of World War I, most had relocated to 42nd Street and Broadway, and by the 1950s the Brill Building on Broadway at 49th Street had become the new center of the music publishing industry. The name may be derived from the din created by the poor tone quality of inexpensive upright pianos used in music publishers' offices.

tinsel print
A colored print, usually depicting actors and/or actresses in costume, decorated by tinsel enthusiasts with die-cut metal foils (tinsel) and sometimes bits of fabric, leather, feathers, and other suitable material, an art form popular from about 1815 to 1830. Click here to learn more about the conservation of tinsel prints, courtesy of the Folger Shakespeare Library.

tinted drawing
A style of medieval manuscript illumination in which the subject is first outlined in black or colored ink and a lightly tinted color wash added to some or all of the drawing to give the impression of modeling. Michelle Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts (Getty Museum/British Library, 1994) that this technique, sometimes combined with fully painted design elements, was first popularized in Anglo-Saxon England, then revived in 13th-century England in the work of Matthew Paris and the Court School of Henry III. Click here to page through tinted drawings in a 13th-century Anglo-Norman verse life of King Edward the Confessor (Cambridge University Library, Ee.3.59). Synonymous with pen and wash.

In printing, variation in the color or black and white texture of a printed page, produced by adding white to the ink, to produce a pastel (see these examples). Compare with hue and shade.

An early method of producing a color image by dying black and white motion picture film, commonly used in films of the silent era. A single dye was applied to the entire film base from edge to edge, including the perforated margins, usually after processing, causing the lighter areas of the image to appear tinged with color. Tinting could be light or heavy. Specific colors were used to convey mood, for example, red for battle scenes, sepia for interiors, and blue for melancholy or night scenes. The technique was also used in some works to distinguish a "film within a film." Not to be confused with toning in which the opaque areas of film were colored by dying the silver particles in the emulsion. Both techniques were sometimes used in the same silent film.

A positive photographic image made with a wet collodion emulsion on a thin iron plate darkened with black lacquer by a process patented in 1856 by Hamilton L. Smith, professor at Kenyon College, Ohio. As in the daguerreotype, the image is reversed laterally. Less expensive and quicker to produce than the silver-plated daguerreotype and less fragile than the glass-plated ambrotype, the tintype was widely used for commercial portraits to the end of the 19th century, bringing photographic images within reach of the masses. In the 1880s, the wet emulsion was replaced by a dry gelatin. Click here to see an example (Smithsonian Institution) and here to see six more (University of Texas at Austin). Tintypes were displayed in a variety of mountings. Synonymous with ferrotype and melainotype. See also: gem photograph.

tip in
See: tipped in.

tipped in
A single leaf, errata slip, or separately printed map or illustration trimmed to page size and pasted into a book against the following page after the text has been printed and bound, by applying a thin line of adhesive to one of its edges, usually the one closest to the binding edge. A tipped in leaf ("paste-in") may be somewhat restricted in its openability. Click here or here to see the process illustrated. See also: guard.

tissue paper
Very thin lightweight paper manufactured from virgin or recycled chemical pulp. Because of its absorbency, tissue paper has many household uses. It is also used for wrapping fragile objects. In binding, tissue paper is inserted loose between the leaves of a book or affixed to the inner margin, usually to protect the surface of a plate or prevent the offset of fresh ink onto the facing page.

tissue stereograph
A stereograph in the form of a photographic print, often hand-colored, made on thin translucent paper mounted between glass plates or on a card cut out to form a frame, intended for viewing as a backlit transparency (see this example, courtesy of the Online Archive of California). Developed in France, the format became commercially available in 1855 (see this tinted example, courtesy of Flickr). Synonymous with French tissue and tissue view.

A word, phrase, sentence, single character, or sequence of characters usually appearing on or in an item, naming the work(s) contained in it, for purposes of identification and reference. In nonfiction, choice of title usually reflects the content of the work, distinguishing it from others of similar subject. A subtitle may be included following a colon or semicolon. Translations may have a parallel title in the original language. The full title is usually printed on the title page of a book or at the beginning of an article or essay published in a book or periodical. The title given on the title page may differ from the one printed or impressed on the spine or cover. In a film or videorecording, the title is usually given in the first few frames.

In library cataloging, the title proper is entered in the title and statement of responsibility area of the bibliographic description as it appears on the chief source of information. A work published under more than one title is cataloged under a uniform title (example: Bible). The term is also used in a less precise way to refer to any bibliographic item known by its title, as in the phrase "list of titles ordered." See also: alternative title, binder's title, catchword title, chapter title, cover title, divisional title, edge title, half title, panel title, partial title, running title, series title, short title, side title, spine title, supplied title, title change, and working title.

Also refers to a formal name or appellation given to an individual or family in recognition of privilege, distinction, office, or profession (baronet, saint, president, doctor, etc.). In AACR2, titles of nobility are included in the personal name heading when used to refer to the individual, titles indicating high office are given in English whenever possible, and titles of address (Miss, Mr., Mrs., etc.) are omitted from the heading, as are minor ecclesiastical titles, military titles, academic and professional titles, and government titles below the highest rank.

In employment, the official name assigned to a specific position within the organization, for example, Instruction Librarian. Usually based on function, library position titles vary from one institution to another (Instructional Services Librarian).

title and statement of responsibility
In library cataloging, the area of bibliographic description in which the title proper of a work and information concerning authorship (statement of responsibility) are recorded (field 245 of the MARC record).

title block
Synonymous in cartography with cartouche.

title change
The title proper of a publication bearing a title different from the one under which it was previously published. In AACR2, a title proper is considered to have changed if any word (other than an article, preposition, or conjunction) is added, deleted, or changed, or if the order of the first five words is altered, necessitating the creation of a new bibliographic record. AACR2 2002 adopts the ISBD terminology "major" and "minor" to describe title changes and recognizes five additional categories of minor change that can be simply noted in the existing record. See also: retitled edition.

Title changes occur most often in serial publications, compounding the work of librarians and complicating access for users. A new bibliographic record must be created for each successive serial title, with a Continues: note in the record representing the new title and a Continued by: note in the record for the earlier title. Latest entry cataloging is used for integrating resources. See also: earliest entry and title varies.

title frame
One or more frames, usually found at the beginning of a work produced on film (motion picture, filmstrip, etc.), containing identifying textual information distinct from the subject content, used as the chief source of information in creating the bibliographic record that describes the item in the library catalog (see this example). Compare with title screen.

title index
An alphabetically arranged list of the titles of the works covered in a serial or nonserial publication, for example, the Book and Film Title Index to America: History and Life. Title and author indexes are sometimes combined. See also: subject index.

title leaf
The leaf of a book bearing the title page on the recto and, in mocern publications, the publisher's imprint, notice of copyright, cataloging-in-publication (CIP), ISBN, and printing history on the verso. In the front matter of a book, the title leaf follows the half title and precedes the dedication.

title page
The page at the beginning of a manuscript, book, or other printed publication, often of special design, bearing the title proper of the work and usually, but not necessarily, the name of the author(s), editor(s), translator(s), and publisher or printer and in some cases the volume number (if applicable) and date and place of publication. The title page is the chief source of information used by librarians in cataloging a book. In most books, the title page is the recto of the leaf following the half title. The verso of the title leaf bears the notice of copyright, publication date, publisher's imprint, CIP, ISBN, and in some cases, the printer's imprint.

According to Geoffrey Glaister, the first complete title pages appeared in early printed books around 1500 (see this example), and by the late 16th century the decorative possibilities of the title page had been fully realized (Encyclopedia of the Book, Oak Knoll/British Library, 1996). Click here to see an illuminated title page and frontispiece in an early 16th-century edition of Dante's Divine Comedy, published by Aldus Manutius, and here to see a 17th-century example without color. Additional examples of early title pages can be seen in Treasures of the Library (NOAA Library). For a scholarly treatment of the early history of the title page, see The Title-Page: Its Early Development, 1460-1510 by Margaret M. Smith (British Library/Oak Knoll, 2000). Click here to see a decorated title page and frontispiece by the early 20th-century illustrator Elizabeth Shippen Green (Library of Congress) and here to see Aubrey Beardsley's title page design for an 1894 edition of Oscar Wilde's Salome (Morgan Library). Abbreviated tp. Also spelled title-page. Compare with title piece. See also: added title page and series title page.

title piece
Before it was customary to include title pages in books, some manuscripts bore the title on a decorative panel or page or on a label attached to the binding (see this example, courtesy of the British Library, Egerton 759). The style of presentation and location of the title piece may suggest the methods used in storing a book and provide clues to its provenance.

title proper
The primary name of a bibliographic item, usually found on the chief source of information, including any alternative title but not parallel titles and other title information. In AACR2, the title proper is entered in the title and statement of responsibility area of the bibliographic description (field 245 of the MARC record). See also: uniform title.

An inclusive term for the words and credits that appear at the beginning and end of a motion picture or videorecording, giving the main title of the work and the names of the performers (cast), producer, director, narrator, screenwriter, and others involved in the production. Front credits appear before the film begins, end credits after its conclusion. In AACR2, the title frames are the chief source of information preferred in cataloging motion pictures and videorecordings. Subtitles are used at the bottom of the screen to translate the dialogue into another language. See also: intertitle.

title screen
In electronic resources (databases, Web pages, etc.), a textual display giving the title proper of the work and, in most cases, the name of the author(s), editor(s), or compiler (statement of responsibility) and details of publication, used in library cataloging as the chief source of information for the bibliographic description of the resource. Compare with title frame.

title song
A theme song named for the title of the motion picture or television series for which it was composed, usually sung during the film or at the beginning and end with the credits (example: "Never on Sunday" from the film by Jules Dassin).

title statement
The title proper of a work, plus the optional general material designation [GMD] and remainder of the title (if applicable), given in the title and statement of responsibility area of the bibliographic description (field 245 of the MARC record). In AACR2, the wording, order, and spelling of the title proper is followed exactly as it appears in or on the item, but punctuation and capitalization may be changed by the cataloger.

title varies
A phrase used as a note in the bibliographic record for a serial publication to indicate that the title appears in slightly different form from one issue or volume to another, when it is clear that the publisher did not intend a change of title, or when nearly all the issues or volumes bear one title, discrepancies occurring in only a few random issues or volumes.

Introductory words added in capital letters by a rubrisher in red or blue ink in a space left blank at the beginning of a medieval manuscript or one of its chapters when the text was hand-copied, often filling several lines (click here to see an example, courtesy of the British Library, Arundel 155). Gold leaf or powdered gold was used in more important works. See also: illuminated.

See: Theatre Library Association.

See: top level domain.

See: typed letter signed.

See: Times Literary Supplement.

See: typed letter signed.

See: trademark.

See: National Archives, The.

See: table of contents.

Printer's slang for a large advertisement placed in a newspaper or magazine for a legal reason, usually as an announcement. Also refers to a flaw in page layout in which subheadings in two adjacent columns in a multicolumn layout are positioned at the same level, confusing the eye of the reader.

Originally, any volume of a work published in more than one volume. In modern usage, a book of very large size, also weighty in subject or treatment. Pronounced like "Rome."

A liturgical book in which antiphons, responsories, and other chants of the Mass and Divine Office are classified according to the eight musical modes of Gregorian chant, to assist in memorization. Click here to see a 12th-century German example, courtesy of the Schøyen Collection (MS 1670). According to the British Library's Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts, independent tonaries first appear in the Carolingian period but are rare, mainly because the tonary is commonly incorporated into other liturgical books, such as the antiphonal, gradual, and troper, and into collections of musical treatises.

Electrostatically charged dry ink powder used in photocopy machines to develop the image and bond it to the copy under heat and pressure.

toner cartridge
A sealed case containing dry ink powder, designed to be inserted easily in a photocopy machine, enabling the user to replenish the supply of toner without spills (see this example for a color copier).

Tony Awards
An awards program established in 1947 by the American Theatre Wing (ATW) to celebrate excellence in the theater. The Tonys are named for Antoinette Perry, actress, director, producer, and the dynamic wartime leader of the Wing who had recently died. Since 1967, the Tonys have been administered jointly by the ATW and the The Broadway League. The awards were originally given at an annual gala dinner held in New York City, but since 1967 they have also been telecast from a Broadway theater. In 1997, the awards ceremony was moved from Broadway to Radio City Music Hall to accommodate invited members of the public. Awards are given in over 20 categories, including best play, best musical, best original score, best revival of a play, best performance by a leading actor in a play, best performance by a leading actress in a play, best direction of a play, etc. The award is a medallion designed by Herman Rosse, depicting the masks of comedy and tragedy on one side, with the profile of Antoinette Perry on the other. Click here to connect to the official Tony Awards homepage. Compare with Obie Awards.

A narrow band along one side or across the top or bottom of a window or frame in the graphical user interface of a microcomputer application, displaying a row of buttons or icons that can be clicked with a pointing device such as a mouse to access menus and open other windows, allowing the user to select options, set parameters, and perform functions. Compare with navigation bar.

A finishing technique in which decorative designs are hand-stamped with a heated brass tool on the outer surface of a book covered in leather or cloth. A fillet produces a straight line, a roll or wheel makes a continuous ornamental strip, and individual tools create small motifs that can be repeated to form patterns. Blind tooling usually darkens the surface slightly. Click here to see a 16th-century example (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Ag-d.73). In gold tooling, the brass die is pressed through gold leaf or foil onto a surface prepared with an adhesive such as glair. Click here to see an elaborate 17th-century example (Glasgow, BD14-i.23) and here to see a magnificent 18th-century tour de force (Princeton University Library). Tooling can also be done in ink. To see other examples of tooling, try a keywords search on the phrase "tooled in blind" or "tooled in gold" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. Compare in this sense with blocking.

In medieval illuminated manuscripts, gilded surfaces in miniatures, initial letters, and ornamental borders were sometimes tooled for decorative effect. Click here to see a tooled gilt background inside an historiated initial in the Breviary of Chertsey Abbey (Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, MS Lat. liturg.d.42). See also: gauffered edges.

A printed or online guide that brings together in one place practical information for accomplishing a goal or beginning a project, including but not limited to case studies, action plans, policies, learning modules, resource lists, useful terminology, important contacts, etc. (example: The Ethnographer's Toolkit, edited by Jean Schensul and Margaret LeCompte). Also spelled tool kit.

In computing, a set of programs, scripts, macros, documentation, and other aids to help a developer build applications faster.

tool kit
See: toolkit.

The degree of roughness of a paper's surface. Also, the degree to which a paper's roughness enables ink to adhere well to its surface in printing. Paper with tooth is also preferred for artwork in charcoal and pastel.

See: temporarily out of print.

A subject for research or discussion. The first step in a library research project is the formulation of a workable topic statement. As a literature search progresses, the topic may require refinement (change of specificity or focus), depending on the amount of published information available and the time constraints of the researcher. See also: search strategy.

topical guide
A printed or online list or description of the best bibliographic tools and resources available to a researcher for conducting a literature search on a specific topic, presented in the sequence in which they would optimally be used. Also known as a pathfinder. See also: search strategy.

topical subdivision
In library cataloging, the division of a class or subject heading to limit the concept to a specific subtopic (action, attribute, aspect, etc.) by the addition of notation or a subheading following a dash or other mark of punctuation, as in the addition of the subheading --Security measures to the Library of Congress subject heading Libraries to form the heading Libraries--Security measures. A topical subdivision can itself be subdivided topically, as in the addition of --Planning to create the more specific heading Libraries--Security measures--Planning.

top level domain (TLD)
The last portion of an IP address, indicating the type of entity serving as network host; for example, in the URL www.xyzuniversity.edu, the top level domain .edu indicates that the host is an educational institution. In the United States, seven generic Top Level Domains (gTLDs) were established in the 1980s (.com, .edu, .gov, .int, .mil, .net, and .org). Domain names may be registered without restriction in three of these (.com, .net, and .org); the other four have limited uses. In November 2000, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) authorized seven new TLDs (.aero, .biz, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, and .pro) and is considering proposals to activate additional TLDs. There are also over 240 two-character country code Top Level Domains (ccTLDs) representing countries (example: .uk for the United Kingdom) and external territories (.vg for the British Virgin Islands), many with subdomains (.co.uk for commercial enterprises in the UK).

See: topographic map.

topographical postcard
A postcard showing an actual view of a specific geographic place or area. Photographic examples, often locally produced, are preferred to printed views by collectors (see these examples). Abbreviated topo postcard.

topographic map
A map for which the primary purpose is to locate, identify, and depict the measurable form of natural geographic and man-made features on a portion of the earth's surface, within the limits of scale, usually by the use of contours, shading, hachures, and/or other means of representing relief. Topographic maps often include cultural features, such as roads, bridges, buildings, etc. Generally large-scale, they are a type of relief map. When unbound, such a map is called a topographic sheet.

Click here to see a topographic map in black and white of the Matterhorn in Switzerland (Library of Congress) and here to see a series of topos of the Alps done in color. To search online for topographic maps of the United States, try the MapServer from Maptech, which also provides a database of Historical USGS Topographic Maps. Click here to learn more about how to read topographic maps, courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey, or try Topographical Map Basics (U.S. Search and Rescue Task Force). Abbreviated topo. Compare with planimetric map. See also: bathymetric map and topographic series.

topographic scale
See: large-scale map.

topographic series
A group of topographic sheet maps showing the geographic features of the surface of a country at scales of 1:10,000 to 1:250,000, usually issued by an agency of civilian or military government, such as a national survey or mapping division of a defense department. Click here to see examples produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. Topographic series are also issued internationally at scales of 1:1,000,000 to 1:5,000,000. See also: base map.

See: staining.

top term (TT)
The most general term in a hierarchical classification system, indicated by the abbreviation TT in the thesaurus of indexing terms (example: INSPEC Thesaurus) or by the narrowest indention under the heading to which it applies. See also: broader term, narrower term, and related term.

tortoise-shell binding
A style of 17th-century luxury bookbinding with boards and spine covered in thin pieces of polished tortoise shell, often embellished with silver fittings. Click here to see a small New Testament bound in this material (Otto G. Richter Library, University of Miami, Florida).

See: temporarily out of stock.

total circulation
In publishing, the entire distribution of any issue of a newspaper or periodical, including copies sent to paid subscribers, single-copy retail sales, in-house use, and complimentary copies distributed for promotional purposes.

total publication
An agreement between an author and publisher in which a work is issued in hardcover and also in a mass-market paperback edition under the publisher's separate paperback imprint, as opposed to leasing the paperback rights to an independent publisher for which the author is usually paid a higher royalty. The term does not apply to simultaneous publication under a single imprint of hardcover and softcover trade editions or to the subsequent issuance of a trade paperback edition in which the text and illustrations remain the same as in the hardcover edition.

An electronic pointing device consisting of a small flat surface connected to a computer, which the user can activate with the touch of a finger, instead of depressing the keys on a keyboard or moving a mouse. Synonymous with touch panel. Compare with touchscreen.

A computer screen covered with a clear touch-sensitive panel that enables the user to make selections from a menu of options or initiate specific operations by touching the part of the screen that displays the appropriate word, phrase, symbol, icon, or button. Pressure-sensitive cells in the panel transmit data to the screen software, activating the selection. Also spelled touch screen. Compare with touchpad. See also: interactive whiteboard.

tournament book
A text describing how to conduct a medieval tournament or documenting jousts actually held. The best known instruction manual is the illustrated Tournament Book of René d'Anjou, King of Naples, Sicily, and Jerusalem during the mid-15th century, in which he describes arms and armor; customs, rules, and ceremonies; order of events; responsibilities of judges; etc. (click here to see a facsimile of a page from the copy in the Russian National Library in Saint Petersburg). See also this illustrated record of jousts held in Nuremberg between 1446 and 1561, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

A unit of area established by Congress in the Land Ordinance of 1785 for use in surveying west of Pennsylvania, to locate and identify land for purposes of ownership. Referenced to a principal meridian and base line, a township is generally square, measuring 6 miles to a side (36 square miles), bounded on the east and west by range lines running north-south and divided into 36 sections of 640 acres (1 mile to a side). East of Pennsylvania, the term refers to a unit of local government. Townships are known by name. Click here to see a map of the townships of Pine County, Minnesota. See also: Public Land Survey System.

A three-dimensional object designed for imaginative play or to provide amusement to children or adults. In a more general sense, a plaything contrived for amusement rather than for practical use. Some public libraries maintain toy collections (puppets, games, etc.), sometimes available for loan, helpful in serving families with young children, especially in low-income communities. See also: game.

toy book
A small, illustrated book for young children, published in 19th-century England and America, usually consisting of eight leaves of vivid, hand-colored pictures with very little text (alphabets and simple tales were popular). Originally issued in paper covers, later variations included cloth books printed on sturdy fabric, pop-up books, and flicker books. Toy books were often published in series to encourage gift buying and collecting. Click here to see an example illustrated by Walter Crane, courtesy of the British Library.

toy library
A collection of children's toys and games which can be borrowed for short periods of time, usually provided in the children's section of a public library.

A copy of an image, map, design, etc., made by drawing over its lines on a translucent medium superimposed on the original (as on a light table) or by the use of transfer paper. See also: carta lustra and onionskin.

A record of the additional headings under which a bibliographic item is listed in a library catalog, usually associated with the main entry, enabling the cataloger to "trace" all the entries referring to the item whenever a change or correction is made or when the item is withdrawn from the collection. In an authority file, a record of all the references made to and from the headings to be used in a given file of bibliographic records (adapted from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, ALA, 1983).

In information storage and retrieval, one of the concentric rings or spirals on the surface of a magnetic disk on which data is recorded. A standard floppy disk has either 80 tracks (double-density) or 160 tracks (high-density). In sound recording, one or more optical or magnetic bands running parallel with the long dimension of an audiotape, videotape, or film on which signals are recorded for playback as synchronized sound. In a general sense, the portion of a moving storage medium accessible to a single reading device (The Bookman's Glossary, Bowker, 1983).

Also refers to a single selection on a record album containing more than one selection. See also: track listing.

track listing
A list of the selections on a record album containing more than one selection, usually in the order in which they are arranged on the recording. Track listings are usually printed on the back of the album cover of an LP or on the paper insert or booklet inside the jewel case containing a compact disc (CD).

A book or pamphlet containing a treatise or discourse on a political, social, or religious topic, usually issued as propaganda or for doctrinal purposes. Click here to see a copy of Counterblaste to Tobacco written by King James I and published anonymously in 1604 (Virginia Historical Society). Also refers to a pamphlet made from a single sheet of printing paper folded one or more times to create leaves.

trade association
An organization dedicated to promoting a specific line of business, such as the book trade, for example, the Association of American Publishers (AAP) or the American Booksellers Association (ABA). Most trade associations publish a trade journal to keep members informed of new products and developments affecting their interests. Directory information on book trade associations is available in the annual reference serial Literary Market Place.

trade binding
The plain, unlettered calf or sheepskin binding used by booksellers of the 15th to the 18th century on books bound in advance of sale, as opposed to craft binding executed per the customer's instructions. Also used synonymously with publisher's binding.

trade book
A general term encompassing quality fiction and nonfiction published in hardcover for adults, trade paperbacks, and children's books issued by a commercial publisher for sale to the general public, as distinct from mass-market paperbacks, reference books, scholarly books, textbooks, and other books intended for a limited market segment. The standard publisher's discount on trade books is 40 percent. See also: trade bookstore and trade publisher.

trade bookstore
A bookstore that sells books of good quality, published for the general public rather than a narrow segment of the market. Large chains may also sell newspapers, general interest magazines, videorecordings, DVDs, music CDs, road maps, calendars, greeting cards, etc. (example: Barnes and Noble). Trade bookstores normally do not stock expensive reference books, scholarly and technical books, and textbooks. Mass-market paperbacks are stocked selectively, based on reputation of author.

trade card
A small paper card, printed or engraved to advertise a specific business or product, usually a manufactured item. Trade cards originated in 17th-century London, where they were printed by the woodcut or letterpress method (see this example). By the 18th century, copperplate engraving predominated, in monotones or tinted. After 1830, color lithography was used (example). One of the most popular forms of advertising before distribution of newspapers and periodicals became widespread, trade cards are a form of ephemera collected for their indication of consumer habits, social values, and marketing techniques. They are of interest to scholars across the disciplines of business history, graphic design and printing history, and social and cultural history. Click here to view an online exhibition of 19th-century American trade cards, courtesy of the Baker Library at the Harvard Business School. Also spelled tradecard. See also: business card.

trade catalog
A list of all the books currently in print, published in a specific country or in other countries for which domestic publishers act as agents (example: Books in Print). Also, any publication that lists and describes the products manufactured and sold by a commercial company, with prices, illustrations, and information on how to order, for use in sales. The publisher's catalogs sent by post to booksellers and libraries are a prime example. Some booksellers also publish their own trade catalogs for distribution to potential retail customers or make catalog information available on the Web (example: Hudson Hills Press). Click here to view an online exhibition of early trade catalogs (University of Delaware Library).

trade directory
A serial publication, usually issued annually, listing the companies and organizations engaged in buying, selling, or exchanging a specific category of goods and services. Entries include the official name, mailing address, phone/fax numbers, key personnel, and other important information (example: American Book Trade Directory published by Information Today, Inc.).

trade edition
An edition produced by a trade publisher in hardcover and/or paperback publisher's binding for sale to quality booksellers and libraries. Trade editions are published for the general reader, rather than a specific segment of the market. Compare with mass-market paperback, scholarly book, and textbook.

trade journal
A periodical devoted to disseminating news and information of interest to a specific category of business or industry, often published by a trade association. Some trade journals are available in an online version, as well as in print (example: Publishers Weekly). Click here to see an example of a trade journal digitization project.

trade list
See: trade catalog.

trademark (TM)
A letter, numeral, word, phrase, logo, device, design, sound, or symbol (or combination of these) used in connection with a product or service to signify, directly or by association, the identity of the maker, usually a commercial enterprise that has reserved to itself the use of the distinctive mark by registering it with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Trademarks of successful products and services are jealously guarded by their owners to prevent competitors from imitating them. Registration, indicated by a small "R" inside a circle ® following the name (or by "TM" if registration is pending), gives the owner the right to legal redress in case of infringement. Click here to view a U.S. Trademark History Timeline (University of Texas at Austin) and here to learn more about U.S. trademark law (Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School). The Canadian government provides the Canadian Trade-marks Database. Also spelled trade mark. See also: infringement, service mark, sound mark, and patent and trademark resource center.

trade name
The name used to designate a specific business enterprise and the reputation it has acquired in the market place (example: Microsoft), as distinct from any trademark associated with the firm's products (Windows). See also: brand name.

trade paper
A newspaper devoted to publishing news and commentary of interest to people who work in a specific industry (see this online example).

trade paperback
A softcover edition published by a university press or trade publisher in larger format and better-quality binding than a mass-market paperback, for retail sale in college and trade bookstores. Most trade editions are published first in hardcover, then reprinted in paperback from the same plates after sales potential in hardcover has been realized. In some instances, paperback rights are sold by the original publisher to a trade paperback publisher. Synonymous with quality paperback. Compare with mass-market paperback.

trade publisher
A publishing house that issues books of interest to the educated reader, for sale in college and quality retail bookstores, for example, Farrar, Straus and Giroux and St. Martin's Press. Few large trade publishers remain independent, many having been purchased by media conglomerates. A case in point is Alfred A. Knopf, now owned by Random House. Compare with popular press and university press. See also: trade book and trade edition.

A literary work in prose or verse in which a catastrophe or sudden reversal of fortune befalls the protagonist, usually due to uncontrollable circumstances (example: Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman) or as a result of an error of judgment or serious flaw in character (Macbeth). In classical Greek drama, the weakness that brings about the downfall of the tragic hero (or heroine) is typically hubris (pride). Click here to learn more about classical Greek tragedy. Compare with comedy and tragicomedy.

A form of drama that originated in Elizabethan and Jacobean England, combining the forms and conventions of tragedy and comedy, usually by including characters of both high and low social position and by unfolding unfortunate events that unexpectedly result in a happy ending (example: Shakespeare's play Cymbeline). See also: comedy-drama.

A short film used primarily for advertising purposes, consisting of carefully selected extracts from a longer motion picture to be shown at a later date. In library cataloging, the term is added inside square brackets [trailer] following the title proper in the bibliographic description to indicate material type. Compare with film clip. See also: preview.

Also refers to the short strip of film without images at the end of a filmstrip, motion picture, or unexposed roll of film, added to allow the item to be handled without damage. Compare with leader.

trail map
A map showing established hiking, biking, or ski trails in an area of scenic interest, usually with some indication of vertical relief to allow the user to judge difficulty. Maps of ski trails are often drawn on a perspective view of the mountain slope (see these examples). Trails for day hiking and backpacking are usually shown on topographic maps issued by the U.S. Geological Survey, with trailhead and official campsites indicated (click here to see an example). Trail maps are sometimes printed on paper that is specially coated to withstand wetting and frequent refolding in the field.

Instruction designed to teach a person or group of people (trainees) a specific skill or set of skills, for example, how to check books and other materials in and out at the circulation desk of a library or how to reshelve items in correct call number sequence. In-service training occurs in the workplace during normal working hours, sometimes in the context in which the skill(s) will be used.

training film
A nontheatrical nonfiction motion picture used by industry, government, trade groups, or the military to teach skills necessary in the performance of particular duties or jobs. Content may be presented in narrative documentary and/or dramatized style. Outdated training films sometimes have historical value or camp appeal. Compare with educational film and instructional film.

transaction log
A continuous record of the operations initiated by users of an automated system during a designated period of time (week, month, year). In online catalogs and bibliographic databases, the "transactions" are usually searches recorded by type (author, title, subject, keywords, etc.) that can be analyzed to reveal usage patterns and longitudinal changes in search behavior. See also: peak use.

Also refers to a record kept for statistical purposes of the number of library patrons who receive assistance from staff at a service point, for example, the number of questions answered by librarians at the reference desk, usually broken down by type of question (directional, informational, instructional, referral).

The published papers or abstracts of papers presented at a conference or meeting of a society or association, usually including a record of what transpired. The term may also appear in the title of a scholarly journal that publishes articles that have not been presented orally, for example, Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Compare with proceedings.

To make a written or typewritten copy, usually of a conversation, speech, broadcast, sound recording, or other oral presentation, or a copy of notes taken on the content of such a presentation. See also: transcript.

Also, to adapt or arrange a piece of music for a voice, instrument, or ensemble different from that for which the work was originally intended. In computing, to copy a data or program file from one external storage medium to another without altering its content.

A copy of an original, usually made by hand or typewritten, particularly a legal document or official record, for example, a student's official academic record. Also refers to the written record of words spoken in court proceedings or in a speech, interview, broadcast, or sound recording (click here to search for transcripts of Saturday Night Live). See also: transcribe.

A change in the physical custody of archival materials from one location or agency to another, usually without a corresponding change of legal ownership and responsibility, for example, the relocation of records no longer current to temporary storage to await final disposition.

transfer sheet
A paper or other flexible sheet bearing images to be conveyed to another surface by the application of pressure, heat, or moisture. Examples include iron-on patterns and pictures on graphite paper (Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II).

transgressive fiction
A genre of literary fiction in which taboo subjects (illicit sex, drug use, sadism, incest, pedophilia, etc.) are explicitly explored in the belief that self-knowledge or personal freedom is to be found at the outer edge of human experience. Because writers of transgressive fiction often ignore literary convention and standards of good taste, some of their works have been the subject of obscenity trials (example: Tropic of Cancer [1934] by Henry Miller).

A passage from a speech or written work, or an entire speech or work, put into the words of another language (English into Spanish) or into a more modern form of the same language (Old English or Middle English into contemporary English), usually to make the text more accessible to individuals who are unable to read it in the original language. Translations differ in the degree to which they follow the original. A free translation gives the general meaning of the text without translating it word for word.

The name of the translator usually appears on the title page of a book, following the name of the author. A translation may have a parallel title in the source language. In library cataloging, the note Translation of: is added in the bibliographic description, giving the title in the original language. Click here to see a typescript of Out of Africa by Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen) with her translation into Danish written in pencil above the lines (Royal Library of Denmark). Abbreviated trans. See also: Index Translationum and machine translation.

A person who renders speech or text from one language in another or from an older form of a language into a more modern form. Translations of a work often differ in fidelity to the original. Name of translator usually appears on the title page of a book, following the name of the author. In AACR2, name of translator is recorded in the statement of responsibility area of the bibliographic description following name of author, and under prescribed conditions an added entry may also be made in the translator's name. See also: American Literary Translators Association and American Translators Association.

Rendering the characters of one alphabet in characters representing the same sound (or sounds) in another alphabet (example: Greek or Cyrillic into Roman). Each character is treated independently of the others. See also: romanization.

translucent map
A map made on semi-transparent material that allows light to pass through diffusely, so that objects behind the map cannot be seen, usually designed for use in an illuminated display case. Click here to see one of 33 translucent schematic maps, formerly used in subway station mezzanines, donated to the Library of Congress by the Metropolitan Area Transit Authority of Washignton, D.C.

A sheet of transparent material, such as glass, thin paper, or plastic, sometimes mounted in a frame, bearing text and/or image in color or black and white. Viewed by shining a light through the sheet, transparencies are often intended for projection on a large screen using an overhead projector or document camera. Standard size for film transparencies is 8 1/2 x 11 inches. Presentation software has replaced overhead transparencies, but a well-prepared presenter brings them as backup in case of equipment or network failure. Compare with overlay.

The placement of two characters, words, captions, lines of text, or illustrations in place of each other, for example, $91.98 for $19.98 or dog sled for sled dog. In music, the playing of a passage or piece in a different key.

travel book
A work of nonfiction in which the author describes, for the enjoyment and consideration of the reader, his or her travel experiences, usually in a specific region or country (a modern example: Travels with Charley: In Search of America by John Steinbeck). Travel books became popular in the 19th century when railroads and steamships made long-distance travel more accessible to writers. Click here to view a sample of 19th-century travel books published in trade edition (Rare Books & Manuscripts Library, Columbia University). See also The Illustrating Traveler courtesy of the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University. Compare with travel guide.

travel film
A type of nonfiction motion picture that provides a visual tour of a particular city, country, region, etc., for the armchair traveler, or presents a possible itinerary for someone contemplating travel to the area, usually for recreational purposes. The narrator may appear in the film and provide commentary and/or practical advice on dining, accommodations, health, currency exchange, etc. (example: the series Europe Through the Back Door with Rick Steves).

travel funds
Money made available each year by an employer to pay the travel expenses of employees who wish to attend work-related conferences and meetings and offsite training workshops. In academic libraries, travel funds for librarians and library staff may be determined by collective bargaining agreement. Method of allocation may be contractually mandated or controlled by the library faculty. In public libraries, travel funds are often allocated at the discretion of the library director. Travel reimbursements may also be made to candidates interviewed in the hiring process. Click here or here to see a sample library policy on travel funds.

travel guide
A handbook designed for persons interested in touring a foreign country or an unfamiliar city, state, province, or region of their own country. In addition to describing major attractions, most travel guides include maps and directions, information about dining and overnight accommodations, and advice about currency exchange, immunizations, personal safety, and communication with the local inhabitants. Some guides specialize in a particular type of travel, such as bicycle touring or ecotourism.

In public libraries, travel guides are usually shelved by call number in the nonfiction section. Some academic libraries keep current editions in reference. Because currency is important, travel guides may be placed on standing order. Synonymous with tour guide. Compare with guidebook and travel book.

A documentary film or television program that describes travel or promotes the scenic and/or cultural values of a geographic location (example: Pole to Pole [1992] with Michael Palin). The category includes moving images shown with "tour" lectures as well as descriptive works sponsored by travel agencies, chambers of commerce, government agencies, transportation companies, and destination resorts.

travel poster
A poster designed to advertise a particular travel opportunity (see this example) or to promote tourism in general (example), usually bearing a graphic image of the proposed destination. To see other examples, try a search on the term in Google Images.

travel sketch
A rough drawing or watercolor, made on a sheet of paper or in a sketchbook, notebook, or personal journal, of a place, structure, object, event, or person seen in the course of a journey, sometimes with accompanying notes, often as a record for future reference (see these 19th-century examples by Edward Lear, courtesy of The Guardian).

An item that is extremely rare and very valuable, in some cases unique and priceless, usually stored under controlled conditions in the library's special collections. Special security measures are required to protect against theft. Some libraries exhibit their treasures publicly (see Book of Kells); others make them accessible through digitization (see this 15th-century Flemish Book of Hours, a treasure of the National Library of Australia).

See also:

The European Library Exhibitions: Treasures
100 Highlights of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek
American Treasures of the Library of Congress
Dresden: Treasures from the Saxon State Library
Jewels in Her Crown: Treasures of Columbia University Libraries Special Collections
Treasures from The National Archives (UK)
Treasures from the World's Great Libraries (National Library of Australia)
Treasures from Two Millennia: Fifty Treasures from Glasgow University Library
Treasures in the Royal Library of Denmark
Treasures of Lauinger Library, Georgetown University
Treasures of the NOAA Photo Library (U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
Treasures of the State Library of Victoria
Treasures of the Vatican Library
Turning the Pages (The British Library)

treasure binding
A luxurious cover made from precious metals, usually by a jeweler or metalworker, often ornamented with gems, carved ivory, or enamelwork, in the form of a separate case into which the book is inserted or as removable plaques that can be transferred from the boards of one binding to another. During the Middle Ages, treasure bindings were reserved for the most highly prized liturgical books used on the altar on important feast days. When not in use, they were stored in the treasury, rather than in the monastery library. Click here to see the treasure binding on the 11th-century Mondsee Gospels (The Walters Art Museum, MS W.8) and here to see the binding on the Lindisfarne Gospels, commissioned in 1853 by Bishop Maltby of Durham (British Library). Click here and here to see the front and back covers of the Lindau Gospels (Morgan Library, MS M.1). Compare with jeweled binding.

treasure hunt
An exercise in which students are required by their instructor to use the resources of the library to find answers to a list of very specific and often unrelated questions, sometimes as a contest. This type of assignment usually puts a temporary strain on the reference desk, especially when a large number of students converge on the library, all needing the same information at the same time. For this reason, it is one of the "pet peeves" of reference librarians who believe library skills are best learned in the context of a more meaningful research assignment.

A book or long formal essay, usually on an abstruse or complex subject, especially a systematic well-documented presentation of facts or evidence and the principles or conclusions drawn from them. Click here to see 18th-century examples by the philosopher David Hume (University of South Carolina) and here to see an illuminated leaf in a 15th-century collection of moral treatises (Getty Museum). The term is sometimes used in a pejorative sense to refer to a written work in which the treatment is dry and scholarly or unnecessarily detailed or thorough.

A narrative account of the screenplay for a motion picture or television broadcast, including a detailed description of characters, scenes, sets, camerawork, etc., but without the dialogue. Compare with scenario.

In a more general sense, the manner in which a subject or theme is handled stylistically in a literary or artistic work (comically, tragically, satirically, etc.).

In conservation, use of a specific technique or set of procedures to deliberately alter the chemical or physical condition of a document or other object for the purpose of prolonging its existence, including stabilization and possible restoration. See also: treatment history.

treatment history
A record of the conservation procedures applied to an item (deacidification, fumigation, rebinding, restoration, etc.), usually including date of application and any details concerning the treatment process that might be of future use to conservators, particularly in cases requiring reversal.

A formal written agreement between two or more governments concerning peace, military alliance, trade relations, economic assistance, etc., often the result of protracted negotiation. Also refers to the signed document serving as the official record of such an agreement. The texts of important treaties are available in the government documents or reference section of large libraries. The originals are usually housed in national archives or in the special collections of national libraries. Click here to see an early 16th-century example (National Archives of Scotland) and here to see a copy of the first printing of the Treaty of 1783 ending the war between Great Britain and the United States (Lilly Library, Indiana University). For more about treaties, see the Yahoo! list of Web sites on treaties, pacts, and agreements. Synonymous with international agreement.

tree calf
A decorative design in the form of a gnarled tree on the leather binding of a book, produced by pouring streams of water down the inclined surface of the tanned skin in the direction of a central point at the foot of the board. The area is then sprinkled with copperas (copper or iron sulfate) and salts of tartar, which react with the calfskin in the presence of moisture, leaving a permanent dark pattern resembling a tree trunk and branches. Geoffrey Glaister notes in Encyclopedia of the Book (Oak Knoll/British Library, 1996) that the chemical reaction may continue long after the book is bound, causing the covers to eventually disintegrate. The style was popular from the 1770s until the late 1920s. Click here to see an example on a late-18th-century binding (Otto G. Richter Library, University of Miami, Florida) and here to see a 19th-century example with an elegant gold-tooled border (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, BD2-h.34). To see other examples, try a search on the keywords "tree calf" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. Synonymous with tree-marbled calf. See also: mottled calf.

tree structure
A classified display in a thesaurus of indexing terms showing the complete hierarchy of descriptors, from the broadest to the most specific, usually by indention, sometimes with a tree number indicating the location of the heading in the tree, as in the Medical Subject Headings. Tree Structures developed and maintained by the National Library of Medicine:

Diagnosis, Cardiovascular
Angiography, Digital subtraction
Cerebral angiography
See also: explode.

Movement in the development of a phenomenon, usually in a certain direction, sometimes measured statistically. Organizations use trend analysis to anticipate future developments that might affect their interests. The term is also used in the more general sense of "current fashion." In large public libraries, a recent trend has been to include, in plans for renovation and new construction, a gift shop operated by the Friends of the Library. Academic libraries are more likely to provide a cybercafe on the premises.

See: cellulose triacetate.

A test conducted for a limited period of time to determine the suitability of a new person in a position or the quality or feasibility of a new system, product, or service. Database vendors usually offer a free 30-day trial to libraries as an inducement to subscribe.

trial print
See: answer print.

trial proof
In printmaking, a print pulled before completion of the accepted impression, usually to enable the artist to check its quality and refine and perfect it to the desired state for the edition. A trial proof is usually unsigned. Click here to see examples by Andy Warhol. Synonymous with state proof, test proof, and working proof. See also: artist's proof.

trial user
A person or organization asked to use a new service or computer system, usually for a limited period of time, to test its usefulness and effectiveness and to help identify problems that need to be corrected before the final version is released for general use.

tribal library
A public library located on Native American tribal land (reservation, pueblo, etc.), usually staffed by a tribal librarian who speaks the native language. Funding for tribal libraries lags far behind that of libraries outside tribal lands in the United States. The Native American Access to Technology Program (NAATP), funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation from 1999-2003, helped to redress this inequity. The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) offers Native American Library Services Enhancement Grants to tribal libraries. See also: American Indian Library Association.

Issued every three years. Also refers to a serial publication issued every three years. See also: annual, biennial, quadrennial, quinquennial, sexennial, septennial, and decennial.

In moving images, a short work of nonfiction that remains open-ended, to encourage discussion of a difficult problem or controversial issue, usually sponsored and educational in purpose.

A set of three narrative works related in theme or plot, which together form a larger work (example: the Oresteia of Aeschylus). Four similarly related works form a tetrology (The Alexandria Quartet by Lawrence Durrell). See also: prequel and sequel.

A term used in the book trade to indicate that the leaves of a book have been cut down to a size smaller than the publication as originally issued. See also: trimming.

In bookbinding, the process of slicing approximately one-eighth of an inch from the head, tail, and fore-edge of the body of a book to remove the folds of its signatures, done on a machine called a guillotine. Click here to see the procedure illustrated, courtesy of the University of Illinois Library. In paperback books, the cover is usually cut flush or even with the sections. Compare with uncut. See also: shaved.

trim size
The finished dimensions of a printed sheet or publication after waste has been trimmed away to prepare it for binding, usually indicated in the specifications for the print job.

See: diptych.

Issued three times a year. Also refers to a serial publication issued three times a year.

trompe l'oeil
A French phrase meaning "deceives the eye." In illuminated manuscripts, painting that creates the illusion of three-dimensional reality, sometimes with startling effect. By controlling light and shadow, the illuminator represents objects as if resting on or projecting from the painted surface. Click here to see examples in a 16th-century Flemish Book of Psalms (Royal Library of Denmark) and here to see the technique used in the 16th-century Stockholm-Kassel Book of Hours (National Library of Australia). Trompe l'oeil borders can also be seen in the 16th-century Spinola Hours (Getty Museum, MS Ludwig IX 18). Click here to learn more about this style of manuscript decoration, courtesy of the Getty Museum. See also: illusionism.

A liturgical book containing musical and textual additions (tropes) to the chants of the Mass or Divine Office. According to the British Library's Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts, tropers are known from the early Middle Ages on.

true crime story
A nonfiction narrative in which the subject is an actual crime (murder, abduction, theft, etc.) so serious, bizarre, or inexplicable as to excite popular interest and curiosity (example: Small Sacrifices: A True Story of Passion and Murder by Ann Rule). Unusual serial murders and murderers often receive book-length treatment. Compare with crime fiction.

The dropping of characters and the addition of a symbol at the end, beginning, or within a word in a keywords search to retrieve variant forms. Truncation is particularly useful in retrieving the singular and plural forms of a word in the same search.

*librar* to retrieve records containing "interlibrary," "intralibrary," "librarian," "librariana," "librarianship," "libraries," "library," etc.

In most online catalogs and bibliographic databases, the end truncation symbol is the * (asterisk), but since the truncation symbol is not standardized, other symbols may be used (?, $, #, +). In some search software, the user may add a number after the symbol to specify how many characters the symbol may represent (example: facet?1 to retrieve "facets" but not "faceted" or "facetiae").

As a general rule, it is unwise to truncate fewer than four characters (example: art* retrieves "artist," "artistic," "artistry," and "artwork" but also "artichoke," "artillery," etc.). Some databases are designed to truncate automatically. Searchers are advised to read carefully any help screens before truncating in an unfamiliar database. Synonymous with character masking. See also: wildcard.

See: library trustee.

See: Teen Read Week.

See: top term.

See: text-to-speech.

tunnel book
A novelty book in which the pages are bound at both sides and separable accordion-style, allowing the user to look through an opening in the front page to view, as if in three dimensions, a scene depicted on subsequent pages (click here and here to see examples). Synonymous with peepshow book. See also: carousel book.

turnaround time
In data processing, the amount of time that elapses between the initiation of a process or operation and its completion. Compare with response time.

Also, the amount of time it takes a library to perform a specific operation or service. For example, in the delivery of interlibrary loan service, turnaround time for borrowing is measured in calendar days from the date the user submitted the request to the date of notification of availability for pickup or the date the item was sent to the user. For lending, turnaround time is the number of days between receipt of the request by the library and shipment of the item requested.

In library binding, the time required for unbound library materials to be processed, from pick-up at the library to delivery in bound form (including loading and unloading), usually 4-6 weeks. Also spelled turn-around time.

In online systems, denial of access to an authenticated user when the allowable maximum number of simultaneous users is exceeded. Some database software includes an administrative feature designed to track and report turnaway statistics to the subscriber, for use in evaluating the need to upgrade the subscription.

In bookbinding, the portion of the covering of a book folded over the head, tail, and fore-edge of the boards, from outside to inside, mitered at the corners, and covered to within one-eighth to three-sixteenths inch of the edge by the paste-down. On library corners, the turn-in is folded; on Dutch corners, it is cut. On fine leather bindings, the turn-ins may be decorated. Click here to see gold-tooled turn-ins on a 16th-century binding (Bryn Mawr College Library) and here to see the same style on an early 19th-century morocco binding (University of North Texas Libraries).

The rate at which employees leave a company, organization, or institution and are replaced. A high turnover rate may be a sign of difficult working conditions, inadequate compensation, poor management, burnout, etc.

Also, a measure of library use computed by dividing circulation by number of items owned, usually for a specific category of resource. Turnover for media items (videocassettes, DVDs, CDs, etc.) is usually measured in days; for books, in weeks. Turnover is influenced by shelf arrangement and point-of-use marketing (displays, themes, tie-ins, etc.).

turntable hit
In the music recording industry, a vinyl single that achieved success on radio airplay charts, but was not as strong in product sales.

A printed or online instructional tool designed to teach novices how to use a computer system or electronic resource, usually in a self-paced step-by-step manner, often with questions at the end for testing proficiency. Online tutorials have been developed by instruction librarians to accommodate distance learners and students who prefer online library instruction. Compare with help screen.

twice weekly
See: semiweekly.

twice yearly
See: semiannual.

twisted pair
A cable of relatively low bandwidth used in older telephone networks and less costly LANs, consisting of two separately insulated thin-diameter wires twisted around each other, one to carry the signal and the other grounded to absorb interference. Most computer networks use coaxial cable and/or optical fiber, which provide the higher bandwidth required for high-speed data transmission. Telephone companies in the United States are upgrading their infrastructure to coax and fiber-optic cable.

two-double fold test
A simple trial used by conservators to detect brittle paper. One corner of a leaf is gently folded diagonally forward and back twice about one-half inch in from the point where the edges meet. Paper is found to be brittle if the corner breaks off or detaches with a slight pull after the fourth fold.

two-letter index
An alphabetic tab or thumb index consisting of thirteen divisions of two letters each (AB, CD, EF, and so on), often used on desk dictionaries and English thesauri. The one-letter index is used on larger volumes, such as unabridged dictionaries, and on books with a divided thumb index, often facing front and back.

two on
A sewing method used in hand-binding in which two sections are sewn along the fold with a single length of thread, alternating between the sections from kettle stitch to kettle stitch. Today, the technique is used mainly in fine binding to minimize swell (most trade bindings are sewn all along). Hand sewing three sections together in similar fashion is known as three on.

two-shot binding
A method of adhesive binding in which polyvinyl (cold) adhesive is applied to the spine as a primer, followed by a layer of hot-melt adhesive.

Small rectangular units, separately cast in hard lead alloy, each bearing on its face a single character cut in relief (see this example). In letterpress printing, the units are assembled by a typesetter into pages of text, locked in a chase and transferred to the bed of the printing press, where they are inked and an impression of the type matter made under pressure on a printing surface such as paper. After the print job is completed, the units are disassembled for reuse. Johann Gutenberg is credited with inventing movable type, probably in Mainz, Germany, in about the year 1456. Click here to see a labeled diagram of the parts of a unit of metal type. Synonymous with foundry type and hand type. See also: display type, extract type, mouse type, text type, typeface, type family, type size, and wood type.

Also, to manually key input into a computer system via a keyboard, for example, a search statement formulated to retrieve information from an online catalog or bibliographic database.

typed letter signed (TLS)
A letter written on a typewriter or by the use of word processing software and signed by the correspondent. Click here to see an example by the writer Ernest Hemingway (University of Delaware Library). Compare with autograph letter signed.

The upper surface of a unit of type, bearing in relief the character to be printed. Also refers to the general design or style of the characters of a font of type, including all the sizes and weights in which the font is made. Designing a new typeface is a major undertaking, even for an experienced typographer. It is therefore not unusual for a typeface to be named after the person who designed it (example: Garamond). There does not appear to be universal agreement on the classification of typefaces. The ABC Virtual Museum of Typography provides samples of various classical and modern typefaces. Also spelled type face. Sometimes abbreviated face. See also: cameo, condensed, expanded, fat face, glyphic, gothic, graphic, inline, italic, monoline, outline, roman, and script.

type facsimile
A reprint of a work made from a new setting of type in which every detail of the appearance of printed matter in the original edition is copied as precisely as possible. Synonymous with facsimile reprint. Compare with facsimile edition.

type family
In printing, all the variants of the same basic type design, including uppercase, lowercase, and small capitals in both roman and italic in all sizes and weights (lightface, medium, semi-bold, boldface, condensed, expanded, etc.). Compare with font.

type of recording
In AACR2, the method used to encode sound on a disc or tape (analog, digital, magnetic, or optical) is given in the physical description area of the bibliographic record created to represent the item in the library catalog, as in the following examples:

5 sound discs : analog, 33 1/3 rpm, stereo. ; 12 min
1 sound disc (59 min.) : digital, stereo. ; 4 3/4 in
2 sound cassettes (129 min.) : analog, 1 7/8 ips., stereo
1 sound cassette (60 min.) : digital
1 sound track film reel (10 min.) : magnetic, 24 fps

type page
The area or part of a printed page that is printed upon, excluding the margins, headlines, footlines, and page numbers.

An author's original typewritten copy of a work in the form in which it is submitted for publication, or a typewritten copy of the original commissioned by the author or publisher, as opposed to a manuscript written by hand. Click here to see a typescript of Philip Roth's Patrimony (1991) with holograph emendations, courtesy of the Library of Congress. Abbreviated ts. and tss. (plural).

In printing, the setting of type from copy by hand or by machine, with attention to the aesthetic presentation of text, accomplished by a person called a typesetter or compositor (see these examples). To learn more about typesetting, try Wikipedia. See also: linotype, monotype, and photocomposition.

type size
The dimensions (height and width) of the body size of a type font, usually given in points. Most books are printed in type sizes ranging from 5-point to 22-point. Larger types sizes are used mainly for display matter. On the old-fashioned typewriter, pica was the most common type size. See also: extract type and text type.

type specimen
A printed sheet showing samples of a variety of typefaces or the typeface selected for a specific print job (see this early example).

type style
The overall appearance of a typeface, broadly classified as oldstyle, transitional, or modern. In oldstyles, the letters are wide and graceful, with fairly even strokes and pointed serifs (examples: Garamond and Caslon). Transitional typefaces have long, curved serifs and more contrast between the light and heavy lines of the letters (example: Baskerville). Modern typefaces emphasize contrast between light and heavy lines and have thin, straight serifs (example: Bodoni) or no serifs at all (example: Futura).

Text produced by hand, using a typewriter or computer keyboard (see this example), not mechanically printed or handwritten.

See: typographical error.


typographical error
A mistake in a printed work made by the typesetter. Also refers to a similar error made by a person using a keyboard to type a text. Most word processing software includes an automatic spell checker to alert writers to such errors. Abbreviated typo. Synonymous with misprint. See also: proofreading.

The art and craft of setting and arranging type and making impressions from the result, which began with the invention of movable type by Johann Gutenberg in Germany in the mid-15th century. Also refers to the general style, arrangement, and appearance of a work printed from type and to the skill involved in selecting a suitable ink and grade of paper, choosing an appropriate typeface and type size, determining page layout, etc. The person responsible for the final appearance of a printed publication is the typographer (see this example of the work of the American master typographer Frederic W. Goudy). Click here to view typographic exemplars of the 15th-20th centuries (Cary Collection Rochester Institute) and here to view an online exhibition of typography (Rare Book Collection, University of Florida). The ABC Virtual Museum of Typography also provides samples of various classical and modern typefaces.

A system of biblical interpretation in which New Testament themes are juxtaposed with people and events described in the Old Testament, to suggest prefiguration. In medieval manuscripts, such events are illustrated in a series of miniatures arranged in a horizontal row or in parallel columns or in a single miniature surrounded by a historiated border, as in the Prayer Book of Charles the Bold (Getty Museum, MS 37). Click here to view four scenes from Speculum humanae salvationis ("Mirror of Man's Salvation") depicting the Virgin vanquishing the devil in full color, with three prefigurations from the Old Testament in grisaille (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, MS Hunter 60 T.2.18). Typology was the basis of the Bible moralisée and the Biblia Pauperum. Click here to browse a late 14th-century Dutch example (British Library, King's 5).

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